Timeline of english literature

Literature

Renaissance

1500 - 1670

William Shakespeare born

1564

Ben Johnson

1572 - 1637

John donne

1572 - 1631

Edmund Spencer, The Fearie Queen

1590

Robert Herrick

1591 - 1674

George Herbert

1593 - 1633

William Shakespeare Romeo & Juliet

1597

Shakespeare's Hamlet

1601

William Shakespeare Macbeth

1603

Shakespeare's Othello

1603

Letters about Guy Fawkes

1605

Newsbook

1607

John Milton

1608 - 1674

Shakespeare's King Lear

1608

English arrives in North America

1608

Still to be neat

1609

King James Bible

1611

Anne Bradstreet

1612 - 1672

Webster's he dutchess of Malti

1612

First English dictionary

1613

Holy sonnet 18

1615

On my first daughter

1616

On my first son

1616

Inviting a friend to supper

1616

The globe theatre

1616

Andrew Marvell

1621 - 1678

Margaret Cavendish

1623 - 1673

Shakespeare's first folio

1623

John Dryden

1631 - 1700

Easter wings

1633

Jordan (1)

1633

The windows

1633

The collar

1633

The pulley

1633

Death

1633

The good morrow

1633

Holy sonnet 7

1633

A Valediction forbidding mourning

1633

Holy sonnet 1

1635

Johnson's the english grammar

1640

Arcopaglitica by John Milton

1646

John Wilmot

1647 - 1680

Delight in disorder

1648

Upon Julia's breasts

1648

Upon a child that died

1648

Marvell's An Horation ode

1650

When I consider how my light is spent

1653

Early A-Z of London

1653

On the late massacre in Piedmont

1655

Me thought I saw

1658

Paradise lost Book 9

1660 - 1665

Samuel Pepy's diary

1660

Theatrical figures

1662

Coffee houses

1665

Cure for the plague

1665

Fire of london

1666

John Milton: Paradise lost

1667

Of many worlds in this world

1668

Elegy XIX

1669

Criminal slang

1674

Mac Flecknoe

1676

Aphra Bern: The rover

1677

Before the birth of one of her children

1678

Bunyan: The pilgrim's progress

1678

Absolom and Achitophel

1681

Bermudas

1681

To his coy mistress

1681

Advert for a rhinoceros

1684

Alexander Pope

1688 - 1744

Account of a shipwreck

1693

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

The rape of the lock

1712

Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanack

1733

Denis Diderot, Encyclopedie

1750

William Blake

1757 - 1827

Jean-Jacques Roussseau, Emile

1762

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

1772 - 1834

Lord George Gordon Byron

1788 - 1824

Songs of innocence

1789

Percy Bysshe Shelley

1792 - 1822

Songs of experience

1794

The Aeolian harp

1795

John Keats

1795 - 1821

Kubla Khan

1797 - 1798

The rime of the ancient mariner

1797 - 1798

Romantic period

1798 - 1870

William Wordsworth, Lyrical Ballads

1798

Frost at midnight

1798

The prelude

1798 - 1800

A slumber did my spirit seal

1799

London 1802

1802

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, Sept 3, 1802

1802

I wandered lonely as a cloud

1804

The solitary reaper

1805

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

1806 - 1861

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

1808 - 1892

Edgar Allan Poe

1809 - 1849

Charles Dickens born

1812

Robert Browning

1812 - 1889

To Wordsworth

1814 - 1815

The destruction of Sennacherib

1815

Mary Shelley, Frankenstein

1818

Don Juan: canto the first

1818

When I have fears

1818

Lord Byron, Don Juan

1819 - 1824

To Autumn

1819

Ode to the west wind

1819

La belle dame sans merci

1819

Ode to a nightingale, Grecian urn and to psyche

1819

The eve of St. Agnes

1819

Realism

1820 - 1920

To a skylark

1820

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

1821

Matthew Arnold

1822 - 1888

On this day I complete my thirty-sixth year

1824

Christina Rossetti

1828 - 1882

Transcendental movement

1830 - 1860

The lady of shallot

1831 - 1832

Lewis Carroll

1832 - 1898

The lotos-eaters

1832

Ulysses

1833

Mark Twain born

1835

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature

1836

Victorian period

1837 - 1901

Ralph Waldo Emerson, The American Scholar

1837

Thomas Hardy

1840 - 1928

My last duchess

1842

Henry James

1843

Gerard Manly Hopkins

1844 - 1889

The bishop orders his tomb at Saint Praxed’s Church

1844

Margaret Fuller, Woman in the Nineteenth Century

1845

The raven

1845

Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre

1847

Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights

1847

Song 'When I am dead, my dearest'

1848

Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience

1849

Lord Tennyson, In Memoriam

1849

Remember

1849

Existensialism

1850 - 2013

Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter

1850

Herman Melville, Moby Dick

1851

Andrea del Sarto

1853

Aurora Leigh

1853 - 1856

Henry David Thoreau, Walden

1854

Oscar Wilde

1854 - 1900

Robert Browning, Men and women

1855

Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass

1855

Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary

1857

Up-hill

1858

George Eliot, Silas Marner

1861

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment

1866

Dover Beach

1867

Neutral tones

1867

Verses upon the burning of our house

1867

Naturalism

1870 - 1920

Emile Zola, Les Rougon-Macquart

1871 - 1893

Jabberwocky

1871

Pied beauty

1877

God’s grandeur

1877

Felix Randal

1880

Virginia Woolf

1882 - 1941

No worst, there is none. Pitched past pitch of grief

1885

Thou art indeed just, Lord…

1889

Crossing the bar

1889

Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D'Urbervilles

1891

Stephen Crane, The red badge of courage

1895

I look into my glass

1898

Frank Norris, McTeague

1899

Drummer Hodge

1899

Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie

1900

The darkling thrush

1900

The Bloomsbury group

1903 - 1964

Edith Wharton, The house of mirth

1905

Modernism

1910 - 1965

E.M. Forster, Howard's End

1910

Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome

1911

The convergence of the twain

1912

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis

1915

Vincente Blasco Ibanez, The four horsemen of the Apocalypse

1916

T.S. Eliot, Prufrock and Other Observations

1917

Lytton Strachey, Eminent Victorians

1918

Hilda Doolittle, Hymen

1921

T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land

1922

F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

1925

T.S. Eliot, The Hollow Men

1925

William Butler Yeats, The Tower

1928

Ernest Hemingway, A farewell to arms

1929

William Faulkner, The sound and the fury

1929

Paul Sarte, Nausea

1938

Albert Camus, The stranger

1942

The beat generation

1945 - 1965

Ezra Pound, The Cantos of Ezra Pound

1948

Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot

1949

Allen Ginsberg, Howl

1956

Jack Kerouac, On the road

1957

William S. Burroughs, Naked Lunch

1959

Post-modernism

1965 - 2013

A satire against reason and mankind

1974

Politics & economy

The Great Civil War

1642 - 1646

Charles I captured.

1642

Queen Henrietta Maria and Charles, Prince of Wales, escape to France.

1642

the Commonwealth established

1649 - 1660

Charles I beheaded

1649

Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) becomes Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

1653

Oliver Cromwell dies; his son Richard attempts to succeed him.

1658

The Restoration. Charles (II—Anglican) returns from France and takes the throne.

1660

Parliament does not meet. Court holds power.

1681 - 1685

Charles dies; his brother James (II; Roman Catholic) succeeds him. \

1685

Threat of "popery."

1685

For 100 years England feels the threat of an invasion from France

1688 - 1788

James, Prince of Wales born.

1688

Glorious (i.e., bloodless) Revolution.

1688

James flees to France and is deposed

1688

Balance of power shifts finally from Court to Parliament.

1688

Mary dies; William (III) sole ruler.

1694

James II dies in France

1701

Act of Settlement directs succession

1701

War of the Spanish succession

1702 - 1713

William dies; Anne (Mary's Anglican sister) succeeds

1702

Act of Union between Scotland and England.

1707

Peace of Utrecht

1713

Anne dies; Dynastic crisis; George I (of Hanover) succeeds unopposed.

1714

Jacobite rebellion.

1715

Charles Edward Stuart born in France to James. South Sea Bubble.

1720

Robert Walpole Prime Minister

1721 - 1742

George I dies; George II crowned

1727

John Kay's flying shuttle

1733

Jacobite rising in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie.

1745

Anglo-French war begins in North America

1754

Lisbon earthquake

1755

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Clive captures India from the French

1757

British Museum opens.

1759

George II dies; his grandson crowned George III.

1760

French surrender Montreal to the British.

1760

Wedgwood opens pottery works

1760

Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years' War. .

1763

France cedes Canada and the Mississippi Valley to Britain

1763

James "the Old Pretender" dies in France.

1766

Boston Tea Party.

1773

Accession of Louis XVI of France.

1774

American Revolution begins.

1775

American colonies declare their independence.

1776

Rousseau and Voltaire die

1778

Cornwallis surrenders to Washington at Yorktown, Va

1781

Lord North resigns; full Parliamentary government restored.

1782

Peace treaty signed in Paris between Great Britain and the United States

1783

Warren Hastings impeached.

1787

Bonnie Prince Charlie dies in France

1788

Bastille falls; French Revolution begins.

1789

Paine, The Rights of Man.

1791 - 1792

Reign of Terror in France

1792

Louis XVI executed in France. England and France at war.

1793

Execution of Robespierre ends the Reign of Terror

1794

Invasion of England threatened

1796

Battle of the Nile. Malthus, Essay on . . . Population.

1798

Napoleon named First Consul of France.

1799

Union of Great Britain and Ireland

1801

Napoleon declared Emperor

1804

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Napoleon captures Vienna

1809

Luddite riots in the North and the Midlands.

1811 - 1812

Prince of Wales named Regent to act for George III, now insane

1811

War of 1812 between England and the United States

1812 - 1814

Napoleon invades Russia.

1812

England and allies invade France.

1814

Treaty of Ghent ends Anglo-U.S. War.

1814

Napoleon exiled to Elba.

1814

Battle of Waterloo; Napoleon exiled to St. Helena in the South Atlantic.

1815

Corn Laws passed

1815

Napoleon escapes Elba; begins the "Hundred Days."

1815

David Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy

1817

Peterloo Massacre of Corn Law protestors

1819

George III dies; succeeded by Prince Regent as George IV.

1820

Cato Street Conspiracy

1820

Napoleon dies

1821

Classical Tripos established at Cambridge

1822

London Mechanics Institute founded

1823

Thomas Arnold appointed to Rugby

1827

Catholic Emancipation Act. Peel establishes the Metropolitan Police

1829

George IV dies; his brother William IV succeeds.

1830

First Reform Bill

1832

Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. Factory Act.

1833

New Poor Law. Houses of Parliament burn down.

1834

Chartist movement

1836 - 1848

William IV dies; succeeded by his niece, Victoria

1837

Anti-Corn-Law League founded

1839

Grammar Schools Act

1840

Queen Victoria marries her cousin Albert, who becomes Prince Consort

1840

Chartist Riots. Copyright Ac

1842

Potato Failure in Europe; starvation in Ireland. Corn Laws repealed.

1845 - 1846

Revolutions in Europe. Queen's College (for women) founded in London

1848

Gold discovered in California and Australia.

1849

Telegraph cable laid under English Channel

1850

Great Exhibition ("Crystal Palace"). Population of United Kingdom at 21 million

1851

Crimean War.

1853 - 1856

Livingston discovers Victoria Falls. Civil Service Commissioners appointed.

1855

The Mutiny (India).

1857 - 1858

Garibaldi takes Naples; unification of Italy

1860

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

Albert dies; Victoria retires into mourning

1861

Bismarck becomes Prussian premier

1862

Geneva Convention establishes Red Cross.

1864

Italy defeated by Austria.

1866

Second Reform Bill:

1867

South African diamond fields discovered. Fenian rising in Ireland

1867

Suez Canal opened. Union Pacific Railway completed in U.S.

1869

Franco-Prussian War.

1870 - 1871

Vatican Council (establishes the infallibility of the Pope).

1870

Forster's Elementary Education Act .

1870

Trade unions legalized

1871

Newcastle engineers strike for a nine-hour day

1871

Germany unified

1871

University Tests Act removes religious tests at Oxford and Cambridge.

1871

Population of the United Kingdom at 26 million (France 36 million).

1873

Victoria named Empress of India.

1876

Compulsory school attendance in Great Britain.

1876

Transvaal annexed

1877

Somerville and Lady Margaret Colleges (for women) founded at Oxford. Zulu war.

1879

War with Transvaal.

1880

Cambridge Tripos exams opened to women.

1881

Triple Alliance (Germany, Italy, and Austria)

1882

Married Women's Property Act

1882

"Oom Paul" Kruger named president of the South African Republic

1883

Mahdi Rebellion in the Sudan

1883

Fabian Society founded.

1883

Third Reform Act and Redistribution Act extend vote to agricultural workers

1884 - 1885

Fall of Khartoum

1885

First (Irish) Home Rule bill rejected.

1886

Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee

1887

London dock workers and match girls strike for 6d./hour

1889

Parnell--O'Shea divorce case ends Parnell's influence; no Home Rule for Ireland

1890

Dreyfus trial in France.

1894

U.S. equals the U.K.'s industrial output

1895

Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

1897

Spanish-American War.

1898 - 1899

Boer war.

1899 - 1902

Victoria dies; Edward Prince of Wales succeed

1901

U.S. acquires Canal Zone from Panama.

1903

Entente Cordiale (England and France).

1904

Revolution in Russia.

1905

The "Great War" (World War I)

1914 - 1918

Easter Rising in Dublin

1916

Russian Revolution.

1917

all men over 21 and women over thirty enfranchised

1918

Irish Free State established. James Joyce, Ulysses; T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land

1922

Equal Franchise Act grants right to vote to women over 21 (as well as men)

1928

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1938

Chamberlain cedes Czech territory to Hitler at Munich

1938

World War II

1939 - 1945

Religion & philisophy

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

1651

John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

1690

Anthony Ashley Cooper, Characteristics of Men, Manners, and Opinions.

1711

Francis Hutcheson Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue.

1720

John Wesley has his conversion experience

1738

David Hume, Treatise of Human Nature.

1739 - 1740

David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

1748

David Hartley, Observations on Man

1749

Edmund Burke,

1757

Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful.

Adam Smith, The Theory of the Moral Sentiments

1759

Wesley builds 356 Methodist chapels.

1759

Thomas Reid, Inquiry into the Human Mind.

1764

Wesley breaks with the Church of England.

1784

Thomas Reid, Philosophy of the Intellectual Powers.

1785

Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.

1789

Archibald Alison, The Nature and Principles of Taste

1790

Dugald Stewart, Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (volume I)

1792

Stewart, Outlines of Moral Philosophy

1793

William Paley, Evidences of Christianity.

1794

Paley, Natural Theology

1802

Stewart, Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (volume II)

1814

Auguste Comte, Systéme de politique positive

1823

Stewart, Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (volume III)

1827

Catholic Emancipation Act restores civil liberties to Roman Catholics.

1828

Comte, Cours de philosophie positive.

1830 - 1842

John Keble's sermon "National Apostasy" begins Tractarian movement

1833

John Henry Newman, Tract Ninety

1841

Conversion of John Henry Newman to Roman Catholicism.

1845

Pope Pius IX restores the Roman Catholic hierarchy in U. K.

1850

Comte, Système de politique positive.

1851 - 1854

Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species

1859

Essays and Reviews.

1860

John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism.

1861

Bishop John William Colenso, The Pentateuch Critically Examined.

1862

Newman, Apologia pro vita sua

1864

Vatican Council declares the Pope infallible in matters of faith.

1869 - 1870

Darwin, The Descent of Man.

1871

Monarchy

Elizabeth 1

1558 - 1603

James 1

1603 - 1625

The stuart dynasty

1603 - 1713

Charles 1

1625 - 1649

Interregnum

1649 - 1660

Charles ii

1660 - 1685

James ii

1685 - 1688

William iii & Mary ii

1689 - 1702

Anne

1702 - 1714

George 1

1714 - 1727

The hanoverians

1714 - 1901

George ii

1727 - 1760

George iii

1760 - 1820

George iv

1820 - 1830

William iv

1830 - 1837

Victoria

1837 - 1901

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

1901 - 1910

Edward vii

1901 - 1910

House of windsor

1910 - 2013

George v

1910 - 1936

Edward viii

jan 1936 - dec 1936

George vi

1936 - 1952

Elizabeth ii

1952 - 2013

Technology

Telescope invented by Hans Lippershey

1608

Microscope invented by Galileo Galilei

1609

Adding machine invented by Blaise Pascal

1642

Barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli

1643

Vacuum pump invented by Otto von Guericke

1645

Pendulum clock invented by Christiaan Huygens

1657

Gottfried Leibniz is known as one of the founding fathers of calculus

1671

Pressure cooker invented by Denis Papin

1679

Newton, Principia: Newton's physics formed the foundation of modern science

1687

Steam engine invented by Thomas Savery

1698

Steam piston engine invented by Thomas Newcomen

1705

Jethro Tull invents mechanical (seed) sower

1708

Thermometer invented by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur

1710

John Kay invents flying shuttle.

1733

Franklin stove invented by Benjamin Franklin

1742

Lightning rod invented by Benjamin Franklin

1752

Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves

1767

Steam engine invented by James Watt

1769

Priestly isolates oxygen

1774

First steam powered mills automate the weaving process.

1779

William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus.

1781

Hot air balloon invented by Montgolfier brothers

1783

Steamboat invented by John Fitch

1791

Eli Whitney develops the cotton gin

1793

Vaccination invented by Edward Jenner

1798

Humphrey Davy discovers nitrous oxide (laughing gas)

1799

Oliver Evans invents the conveyer belt

1799

Locomotive invented by Richard Trevithick

1804

Steam Locomotive (Blucher) invented by George Stephenson

1814

Miner's safety lamp invented by Humphry Davy

1816

Stethoscope invented by Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec

1816

The Arithmometer invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar

1820

was the first mass-produced calculator

Faraday demonstrates the principle of the electric motor

1821

Electric motor invented by Michael Faraday

1821

Charles Babbage designs his first mechanical computer

1822

Photography invented by Joseph Nicephore Niepce

1826

Lawn mower invented by Edwin Beard Budding

1830

Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current

1831

making possible generators and electric engines.

Von Liebig discovers chloroform

1831

Combine harvester invented by Hiram Moore

1834

Braille invented by Louis Braille

1834

Refrigerator invented by Jacob Perkins

1834

Morse code invented by Samuel Morse

1835

Revolver invented by Samuel Colt

1835

Electric telegraph invented by Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)

1838

Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype.

1838

Vulcanization of rubber invented by Charles Goodyear

1839

Anaesthesia invented by Crawford Long

1842

Typewriter invented by Charles Thurber

1843

Sewing machine invented by Elias Howe

1846

Rotary printing press invented by Richard M. Hoe

1846

Pneumatic tire patented

1846

Safety pin invented by Walter Hunt

1849

Monier develops reinforced concrete

1849

Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species

1859

Etienne Lenoir demonstrates the first successful gasoline engine

1859

Revolving machine gun invented by Richard J. Gatling

1862

Isaac Singer commercializes the sewing machine

1862

Mechanical submarine invented by Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol

1862

Lister demonstrates the use of carbolic antiseptic

1866

Dynamite invented by Alfred Nobel

1866

Mendeleev produces the Periodic Table

1869

Stock ticker invented by Thomas Alva Edison

1870

Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter

1873

James Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation

1873

Gasoline carburettor invented by Daimler

1876

Phonograph invented by Thomas Alva Edison

1877

Microphone invented by Emile Berliner

1877

Edison invents the incandescent lamp

1878

Cathode ray tube invented by William Crookes

1878

Photophone invented by Alexander Graham Bell

1880

Maxim invents the machine gun

1883

First skyscraper built in Chicago (ten stories)

1883

Motor cycle invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach

1885

Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine

1885

Hertz produces radio waves

1888

Eiffel Tower is built

1888

Zipper invented by Whitcomb L. Judson

1891

Rudolf Diesel invents diesel

1891

Wireless communication invented by Nikola Tesla

1893

Diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel

1895

Radio signals were invented by Guglielmo Marconi

1895

Auguste and Louis Lumiere develop Cinematograph

1895

Roentgen discovers X-rays

1895

Remote control invented by Nikola Tesla

1898

Planck develops quantum theory

1900

First Zeppelin is built

1900

Vacuum cleaner invented by Hubert Booth

1901

Powered airplane invented by Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright

1903

Einstein writes the Theory of Relativity.

1905

Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere

1907

Helicopter invented by Paul Cornu

1907

Radio amplifier invented by Lee DeForest

1907

Henry Ford mass-produces the Model T.

1908

Bakelite invented by Leo Baekeland

1909

London to Paris air service begins

1919

James Smathers develops the first electric typewriter

1919

Sound film invented by Lee DeForest

1923

Television Electronic invented by Philo Farnsworth

1923

Electro Mechanical television system invented by John Logie Baird

1924

Robert Goddard experiments with liquid-fueled rockets

1926

Antibiotics, penicillin invented by Alexander Fleming

1928

Iconoscope invented by Vladimir Zworykin

1931

Alan Turing develops the concept of a theoretical computing machine

1937

Jet engine invented by Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain

1937

Ballpoint pen invented by Laszlo Biro

1938

Enigma: Adolf Hitler uses the Enigma encryption machine

1943

Colossus: Alan Turing develops the the code-breaking machine Colossus

1943

Aqua-Lung invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan

1943

The atomic bomb

1945

Microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer

1946

Nuclear power reactor invented by Walter Zinn

1951

Optical fiber invented by Hirschowitz, Peters, and Curtiss

1956

Videocassette recorder invented by Ampex

1956

Sputnik I and Sputnik II are launched by the Russians

1957

The first silicon chip, is produced by the US Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce

1958

Laser invented by Theodore Harold Maiman

1960

Uri Gagarin is the first man in space

1961

Optical disc invented by David Paul Gregg

1961

Computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart

1963

Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) invented by John Shepherd-Barron

1967

Hypertext invented by Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson

1967

Video game console invented by Ralph H. Baer

1968

The moon landing - Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon

1969

E-mail invented by Ray Tomlinson

1971

Liquid Crystal Display invented by James Fergason

1971

Pocket calculator invented by Sharp Corporation

1971

Floppy Disk invented by David Noble with IBM

1971

Ethernet invented by Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs

1973

Personal computer invented by Xerox PARC

1973

Camcorder invented by Sony

1983

World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee

1990

Digital satellite radio

2001

Chocolate

Maya Indians

600

The Maya Indians moved from their home in Guatemala to the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. They brought with them cocoa from the rain forest in Guatemala the Maya established large plantations to grow cacao.

Beans as money

1000

The people in Central America began using the cacao beans as money. The beans were also used to make a bitter drink. The drink was used to treat coughs and fever.

Aztec's

1200

The Aztec's began to rule Mexico. The Aztecs demanded payment in the form of taxes from the Aztecs with cocoa beans. The Aztecs used the cocoa bean for drink. They added flowers, vanilla, and honey to their drink.

Christopher Columbus

1502

Was given first drink of chocolate on his first voyage to America. Took some of the cacao beans back to his homeland as an unusual item to show his people.

Hernan Cortez

1519

Established a cacao plantation in the name of Spain.

Expensive chocolate drink

1528

Cortez took beans to Spain. Were hidden in Spanish monasteries. The formula for making the chocolate drink was kept a secret. Only the very rich could afford to buy the drink.

Shipment to Spain

1585

First commercially grown shipment of cacao beans grown in South and Central America was taken to Spain.

Chocolate drinking to france

1615

Anne of Austria, Spanish princes, marries Louis XIII of France and takes Spanish custom of chocolate drinking to
France.

First chocolate house

1657

First chocolate house is opened in England by a Frenchman. Chocolate cost 6 to 8 shillings per pound, only very rich could afford it.

Commoners enjoy chocolate

1660

Maria Theresa of Austria marries Louis XIV of France. She shares her love for chocolate with the people of France. For the first time people outside the royal court enjoy chocolate drinking.

Pralines

1663

Created by a cook in Genensburg, Germany

First solid chocolate in stick form

1674

Sold by a London coffeehouse

Chocolate in Vienna

1711

Charles VI moves from Madrid to Vienna and takes chocolate with him.

Italians serve chocolate

1720

Chocolate served in Florence and Venice

First grinding table

1732

Monsieur Dubuisson, a French inventor, creates table for chocolate grinding. Table is heated by charcoal, makes production easier.

Baker chocolate company established

1764

Established in Dorchester, Massachusetts by James Baker and John Hannon, fist time chocolate was made in the US.

Machine produced chocolate

1780

Machine produced in Barcelona, Spain.

Baker's chocolate

1780

Dr. James Baker names his product

Steam power to grind cacao beans

1795

J.S. Fry & Sons, used in England

First Swiss chocolate factory

1819

Francois-Louis Cailler return from Italy where he studied chocolate making. Established factory in Corsier.

John Cadbury open tea and coffee shop

1822

Hydraulic press used to make cacao powder

1828

Invented by Coenraad Van Houten, a Dutch chocolate maker

Large plant in Corsier, Switzeland

1832

Francois-Louis Cailler

Milk chocolate

1840

Cailler's second factory in Vervey, Switzerland opened and sold to Julien and Daniel Peter who invents milk chocolate

First chocolate bars

1847

J.S. Fry & Sons

Cadbury brothers of Birmingham formed

1860

John Cadbury and his brother Benjamin, gives business to John's sons Richard and George

Heart-shaped candy box

1861

Richard Cadbury created it for Valentine's day

Baker's Chocolate Company trademark found

1862

Painting La Belle Chocolatiere by Jean-etienne Liotard, oldest trademark in US

Handmade confections

1864

Jean Tobler begins production of handmade confections in Bern, Switzerland

Baker's company trademark used

1872

Daniel Peter creates milk chocolate

1875

Conch

1879

Invented by Rodolphe Lindt, calls his chocolate fondant and labels his candy bars Lindt Surfin. Fisrt time chocolate can be smoothed.

Henri Nestle dies

1890

Was founder of Nestle company

Milton Hershey buys equipment

1893

Goes to World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago. Watches demonstration of German made chocolate equipment. Buys it. Ships it to Carmel factor in Lancaster, Pennsylvania

First Hershey bar

1894

Also makes baking chocolate, cocoa, and chocolate coatings for caramels

Ambrosia Chocolate Company

1894

Otto J. Scholenleber start company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Makes bulk chocolate for large companies such as Hostess, Pilsbury and Nabisco

First Tootsie roll

1896

Leo Hirschfield, names it after his daughter

Chocolate eating exposion

1897

England 36 million pound of chocolate, Europeans 100 million pounds and the US 26 million pounds of chocolate.

Jean Tobler starts company in Bern

1899

Lindt & Sprungli formed

1899

Rodolphe Lindt sold his secret formula for fondant chocolate to David Sprungli for 1.5 million Swiss francs

Milk chocolate bar and sweethearts introduced

1900

Milton S. Hershey

Chocolate factory and town for Hershey workers built

1903

Near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Cadbury diary milk chocolate developed

1904

Derry chucrh, Pennsylvania renamed Hershey

1906

First Hershey Kisses

1 July 1907

First Hershey milk chocolate bar with almonds

1908

Toblerone developed

1908

Theodore Toblerone

Silvertops made by Hershey

1909

Mars, Inc

1911

Frank and Ethel Mats build company in Tacoma, Washington

First chocolate covered praline

1912

Jean Neuhaus, Jr.

First chocolate box with drawing of chocolate location

1912

The Whitman Company produced Whitman's Samplers

First Heath Bar

1914

L.S. Heath & Sons, Inc. made in Robinson, Illinois

Fry family merges with Cadbury Brothers

1919

Hershey starts wrapping Kisses by machine

1921

They also add the flag to the wrapping

Mounds candy bar is invented

1921

Peter Paul Halijian works under the name Peter Paul Mounds

First Reese's peanut butter cup

1922

H.B. Reese, uses Hersey's milk chocolate

First Milky Way candy bar created

1923

Hershey's Kisses registered as trademark

1923

First Mr. Goodbar made by Hershey

1925

Baker's Chocolate Company bought by General Foods Corporation

1927

Company moved to Delaware

Hershey Chocolate Company changed to Hershey Chocolate Corporation

1927

Heath Bar developed

1928

L.S. Heath & Sons, Inc. Candy can be bought on home-delivered dairy order form.

Frank Mars opens Chicago candy plant.

1929

Peter, Cailler, and Kohler merge with Nestle

1929

First Snickers candy bar

1930

Frank Mars

Krackel bar made by Hershey

1938

Blommer Chocolaate Company begins manufacturing

1939

Becomes largest commercial chocolate ms. Started in Chicago, Illinois.

Hershey's Miniatures chocolate bars made

1939

M & M Ltd. formed, make first M & M's

1941

Forrest Mars and Bruce Murrie joins forces

First Almond Joy

1947

Peter Paul

Annabelle Candy Company, Inc. started

1950

Makes first Rocky Road candy bar

Hershey's Kisses wrapped in colors

1962

Hershey Chocolate Company buy H.B. Reese Candy Company, Inc.

1963

$23.5 million

The Campbell Soup Company buys Godiva Chocolatier , Inc. of Belgium

1966

Forming of Cadbury Schweppes

1969

Cadbury chocolate business merges with the Schweppes soft drinks

Tobler company merges with Suchard

1970

Becomes largest chocolate company

Reese's company double its size

1970

Hershey's Chocolate World opens

1973

Hershey food puts nutritional information on labels

1973

Cadbury Chocolate World Theme park opens

1973

Bournville, England

Reese's Crunchy made

1976

First Hershey Golden Almond chocolate bar made

1977

Schare-Tobler employee tries to sell company secrets

1980

Tries to sell to Saudi Arabia, China, and Russia

Nestle buys Rowntree

1988

Makes Nestle largest chocolate manufacturer

Hershey Chocolate Company renamed Hershey Chocolate U.S.A.

1988

Company buys Peter Paul

Hershey makes Symphony milk chocolate bar with almonds and toffee chips

1989

Hershey send heat resistant candy bars to Desert storm

1990

144000 send

Recipe to Peanut Butter Cup changed

1991

Add three times more peanuts

First Hershey's Hugs and mini Hershey Kisses wrapped in chocolate sold

1993