The Cold War



Nazi Germany

30 January 1933 - 8 May 1945

East and West Germany

7 May 1945 - 23 May 1949

Flags from West to East:
1. Saar (French protectorate)
2. France
3. Britain
4. United States
6. Poland

"West Germany" Federal Republic of Germany

23 May 1949 - 3 October 1990

"East Germany" German Democratic Republic (DDR)

7 October 1949 - 3 October 1990

Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

3 October 1990 - Present


Comintern (Communist International)

2 March 1919 - 15 May 1943

Yalta Conference

4 February 1945 - 11 February 1945

aka. "Crimea Conference" codenamed "Argonaut Conference"

World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.

Potsdam Conference

17 July 1945 - 2 August 1945

aka. "Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA and UK"

The three powers represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, and, later, Clement Attlee and President Harry S. Truman gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May (V-E Day).

US Atomic Bombs

6 August 1945 - 9 August 1945

Hiroshima: uranium gun-type fission bomb "Little Boy"
Nagasaki: plutonium implosion-type fission bomb "Fat Man"

Kennan - Long Telegram

22 February 1946

aka. "X Article"
officially "The Sources of Soviet Conduct"
Written by George F. Kennan, Deputy Chief of Mission of the United States to the USSR. Published in Foreign Affairs magazine in July 1947.

Churchill - "Iron Curtain" speech

5 March 1946

Winston Churchill's "Sinews of Peace" address at Westminster College used the term "iron curtain" in the context of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe.

Truman Doctrine

12 March 1947

Marshall Plan

5 June 1947 - 1952

officially "European Recovery Program (ERP)"

Gave $13 billion in US economic and technical assistance.
Monetary support to help rebuild European economies after WWII to prevent spread of communism.

Cominform (Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties)

September 1947 - 1956
  • First official international communism since dissolution of Comintern --> confirmed creation of Eastern Bloc

Soviet Atomic Bomb

29 August 1949

Korean War

25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953

Stalin dies

5 March 1953

Warsaw Pact

14 May 1955 - 1 July 1991

officially the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance.

  • Mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Founded under initiative of the Soviet Union.
  • Soviet military reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955.

Eisenhower Doctrine

5 January 1957