They would plant different crops every year to increase nutrients in the soil. More food was produced.
James Watt figured out to make the steam engine more efficient and effective. Steam Engines were used in boats and trains.
Samuel Crompton created this by combining the features of the spinning jenny and the water frame. This made thread stronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier machines.
Edmund Cartwright had it run by water power to make thread faster. These big and expensive machines were placed in factories.
Richard Trevithick won a bet by using a locomotive to haul ten tons of materials over 10 miles of railroad track. Other engineers started improving this idea and governments started building railroads heavily.
Gregor Mendel discovered a pattern to the way traits are inherited. His work began the science of genetics.
Charles Darwin challenged the idea that God created everything as it was and nothing changed. He said that the fittest would survive and reproduce offspring, while the unfit would just die out.
Dimitri Mendeleev created a chart with all the known elements on it in order of atomic weight. He left spaces where he believed new elements would be discovered. His table is still used by scientist today.
Marie and Pierre Curie discovered an energy released by pitchblende which they called radioactivity. Also discovered radium and polonium, which they got a nobel prize for.
Ivan Pavlov discovered that an animal's reflexes could be changed through training. Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, which was a therapy for people who had problems with their brain.