Rousseau believed children's early education should be natural and they should learn through curiosity.
1746 - 1827
Pestalozzi believed learning is achieved through natural and informal instruction. For example, it is unrealistic to expect a child to know how to read without instruction.
1782 - 1852
Frobel stressed the importance of play in learning. He felt that the benefits of playing to learn required adult guidance and planned environment.
Approx. 1859 - 1952
Dewey's philosophy of education led to the concept of child-centered curriculum, or progressive education. His philosophy focuses on social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development along with minimal formal education.
1870 - 1952
Maria Montessori believed that children need early, orderly, systematic training in order to master skills. She also believed in learning through guidance and self-correction using the five senses.
1896 - 1980
Piaget believed that children acquire knowledge through assimilation and accommodation and by interacting with the world. His theory of cognitive development describes the intellectual capabilities of children at their different stages of cognitive development.
1896 - 1934
Vygotsky's theory suggests that learning occurs as children acquire knew concepts. These concepts include schema and scaffolding.
1904 - 1990
Skinner was a behaviorist (believes the outcome of learning is a permanent change in behavior that is caused by stimulus) that believed children learn through imitation and association.
1926 - 2007
The term "Emergent Literacy" was first used by Marie Clay in 1966 meaning that a child acquires some knowledge about language, reading, and writing before coming to school.
Whole-language instruction is similar to emergent literacy perspective, but it considers children who are reading conventionally. Advocates of whole language support the constructionist perspective and natural approaches to learning.