Uprising against the Qing, but complete failure. The losers settled in Shanghai, a city ruled by Western laws. Significant because it helped lead to the Washington treaty by exemplifying a Chinese population under Western rule, showing there needs to be real effort to address these dynamics
Martial artists believed they were impervious to bullets, rose up and protested Western influence in China. They were crushed. Russia sent 200,000 troops into Manchuria in case rebellion spread to Russia. They left their troops there, and built infrastructure. Led to Washington Conference because it shows the conflict between Western and Chinese relations, and the necessity to deal with it
Agree to come to each other's aid. Britain needed a friend in the pacific to watch over their colonies, as they were drawing their navy back as a precaution to a powerful Germany
After squashing rebellion, he takes power for himself but then ties, large power vacuum
Tried to start "Concert of Asia" but failed in doing so. "Open door policy" where countries wanted to engage in fair trade, so that their reparations weren't sapping resources out of Chinese economy. Most important treaties signed - reduced each country's naval capacity (reduce arms race), countries could still maintain territories within China, Japan had to give up Shandong - this terminated Britain-Japan treaty, and Japan was now on its own.
Wasn't effective because it took 3 years to take effect. China wanted to pay France in devalued Franc, France wouldn't sign until they got their payment in gold. After the 3 years, political landscape was very different.
China wanted these treaties to be adjusted because they were so unfair, West didn't change it.
Japanese backed Manchurian and Shanghai troops fought against government. De legitimized central authority. Led to chaos in 1925
British shot Chinese citizens, mass riot. Chinese wanted the ending of extraterritoriality, end of treaty system, get more Chinese involved in the movement.
explosives set off by Japanese soldiers on their own railroad give reason for Japan to use military to occupy Manchuria
League of Nations will not recognize new territories obtained through force
Because of Stimson Order, where league would not recognize new territories obtained by force, the US would not recognize Manchuguo as Japanese, and Japan is labeled as the aggressor.
Stanley Hornbeck (Head of Eastern Affairs) believed there would be no danger of provoking the Japanese if doing so.
Nationalists wanted all of China, Communists retreated to Manchuria. Nationalists push into Manchuria, but dont completely defeat communists. Communists then fight back and win. Chiang Kai Shek flees to Taiwan. Nationalists destroy Communist Ships so they couldn't chase them into Taiwan.
China and US cut off in previous years. Kissinger saw a future where US and China could cooperate. Prepped Nixon's visit in 1972
Exchange of students, investments. Allied against Japan who was invading China from 1931 to end of WWII
Nationalists, led by Sun-Yat Sen, create capital in Canton. Soviets side with Nationalists because they thought they would win. Chiang Kai-shek, backed by soviets, captures Shanghai, then turns on Soviets. Nationalists push north and take Beijing (only possible because communists were fighting with Japan in the north). 1929 - Nationalist government is established
Japan gave back Shandong, peaceful with West, decreased military, not looking for war
Lots of international laws and treaties because they didn't want things to end up like they did in WWI. Various uprisings throughout the world
Japanese military takes action to stop China from advancing into Manchuria, poisons Japan-China relationship
Ended first opium war. 5 cities open to treaty ports. Extraterritoriality established
5 treaty ports, extraterritoriality
• Anti-imperial, cultural, political movement from student demonstrators. They protested China’s weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially Japan’s occupation of Shandong. Marked an upsurge in Chinese nationalism. Political movement where power moved away from intellectual elites and towards the population.
Germany had to pay for entirety of war, give up territory in Europe, give up military. Shandong went from Germany to Japan. Most unequal treaty ever
Students protested the killing of a Chinese factory worker by Japanese guard. 5 students arrested. Crowd entered police station demanding the release of those students. Sparked revolutionary movement
killed by Japanese train bombing
Allies outlined terms of surrender for Japan. Japan refused to surrender and then got bombed