Europeans develop maneuverable, heavily-armed ships with improved navigational aids
Portuguese naval and commercial supremacy
1430 - 1550
Christopher Columbus reaches the Americas
Da Gama reaches India
Loses half of his ships and a third of his men, but returns with cargo worth sixty times the cost of the voyage.
Spain and Portugal dominance
1500 - 1600
Spain and Portugal dominate overseas imperialism
Portuguese organize trade in Asia
Portuguese defeat Arab fleet in the Indian Ocean and organize commercial empire around Indian Ocean; establish trading posts on the east coast of Africa, around the rim of the Indian Ocean, and in India, Southeast Asia, and South China.
Cortes and Pizarros conquer Aztes and Incas
1519 - 1533
Magellan circumnavigates the globe
1519 - 1522
Treaty of Tordesillas
divides non-Western world between Spain and Portugal
Dutch, French, and British build overseas empires
1600 - 1715
Dutch establish colony on southern tip of Africa
1600 - 1615
Dutch East India Company established
Dutch East India Company organized for trade with India; headquarters in Java; expel Portuguese from Indonesia; enjoy only pre-1800 Western commercial relationship with Japan.
British establish permanent colonies in North America
1607 - 1625
French establish permanent colonies in Canada and Caribbean
1610 - 1630
Thirty Years' War
1618 - 1648
decline of Spain as overseas power
Dutch West India Company established
Dutch West India Company organized for trade with the Americas; establish colonies in Caribbean.
Dutch replaced by British and French as dominant
1640 - 1660
mid-1600s. Dutch decline as overseas power; replaced by British and French as dominant maritime powers.
Navigation Act in England
Navigation Act is passed in England to accomplish the goals of mercantilism
British and French establish trading posts in India
1675 - 1695
Jan Sobieski III defeats Turks at the 2nd Siege of Vienna
Treaty of Utrecht
European states agree on boundaries of their empires.
Coffee first planted in Brazil
Britain establishes supremacy
1760 - 1769
Britain defeats France in Great War for Empire (a.k.a. Seven Years' War); establishes supremacy of Britain's overseas empire.
American Colonies win independence from Britain
1770 - 1786
French Caribbean colony of Haiti wins independence