From Western Civ II Week 3 Lecture
Europeans develop maneuverable, heavily-armed ships with improved navigational aids
Loses half of his ships and a third of his men, but returns with cargo worth sixty times the cost of the voyage.
Spain and Portugal dominate overseas imperialism
Portuguese defeat Arab fleet in the Indian Ocean and organize commercial empire around Indian Ocean; establish trading posts on the east coast of Africa, around the rim of the Indian Ocean, and in India, Southeast Asia, and South China.
divides non-Western world between Spain and Portugal
Dutch East India Company organized for trade with India; headquarters in Java; expel Portuguese from Indonesia; enjoy only pre-1800 Western commercial relationship with Japan.
decline of Spain as overseas power
Dutch West India Company organized for trade with the Americas; establish colonies in Caribbean.
mid-1600s. Dutch decline as overseas power; replaced by British and French as dominant maritime powers.
Navigation Act is passed in England to accomplish the goals of mercantilism
European states agree on boundaries of their empires.
Britain defeats France in Great War for Empire (a.k.a. Seven Years' War); establishes supremacy of Britain's overseas empire.