This principle of science has received its name from the fact that it is supposed to cut out unnecessary and irrelevant hypotheses in the explanation of phenomena.
First modern interpretation of anatomical structures.
With his insight into fundamental structure, Vesalius ushered in the dawn of modern biological investigation. Many aspects of his interpretation of anatomy are just now beginning to be appreciated.
Early concept of reflex action
Descartes postulated that impulses originating at the receptors of the body were carried to the central nervous system where they activated muscles and glands by what he called "reflection."
Description of red blood corpuscles.
This discovery, together with Swammerdam's observations on the valves of the lymphatics and the alterations in shape of muscles during contraction, represented early advancements in the microscopical study of bodily structures.
Description of ovarian follicles.
De Graaf's name is given to the mature ovarian follicle, but he believed that follicles were the actual ova, an error later corrected by von Baer.
Concept of species.
Although Ray's work on classification was later overshadowed by that of Linnaeus, Ray was really the first to apply the species concept to a particular kind of organism and to point out the variations that exist among the members of a species.
First measurement of blood pressure.
This was further proof that bodily processes could be measured quantitatively-more than a century after Harvey's momentous demonstration.
Development of comparative investigations of animal structure.
This vigorous eighteenth-century anatomist gave a powerful impetus not only to anatomical observations but also to establishment of natural history museums.
Concept of photosynthesis
These investigators first pointed out some major aspects of this important phenomenon, such as the use of light energy for converting carbon dioxide and water into released oxygen and retained carbon.
Correlation between fossils and geological strata.
By observing that certain types of fossils were peculiar to particular strata, Smith was able to work out a method for estimating geological age. He laid the basis of stratigraphic geology.