Hippocrates developed an extensive body of anatomical and physiological knowledge, it formed the basis of research in anatomy and philology in the Renaissance.
Development of Anatomy and Physiology
130 a.d - 200 a.d
Galen showed a clear concept of scientific methods. He had an influence in students that considered him the authority of anatomical and physiological subjects.
First accurate description of blood circulation
1616 - 1628
William Harvey explained bodily processes on physical terms, cleared away much of the mystical interpretations and gave an auspicious start to experimental physiology.
Discovery of lymphatic system
Thomas Bartholin determined the significance of the thoracic duct in its relation to the circulation.
Discovery of cells
He remarked that it looked strangely similar to cellula. However what Hooke actually saw was the dead cell walls of plant cells (cork) as it appeared under the microscope.
Organizer concept in embryology
Spemann's work was important in showing that development is a sequence of programmed stages and that each stage is necessary for the next.
Concept of neurosecretory systems.
R. Cajalin (1899) discovered that nerve fibers to the neurohypophysis are extensions of neurons of hypothalamus.
It was recognized that vertebrates possess a neurosecretory system analogous to invertebrate systems.
Role of carotid and aortic reflexes in respiratory control.
The carotid sinus and aortic areas contain pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors, the former responding to mechanical stimulation, such as blood pressure, and the latter to oxygen lack
Concept of the cell membrane.
1934 - 1935
Danielli proposed a hypothesis that cell membranes consist of two layers of lipid molecules surrounded on the inner and outer surfaces by a layer of protein molecules.
The control of gene expression in animal development
Gurdon developed an experimental system that enabled him to transfer genetic information from one animal to another.