Hippocrates creates the first establishment of the biomedical tradition.
450 b.c. - 370 b.c.
This Greek physician developed an extensive body of anatomical and physiological knowledge that formed the basis of the revival of research in anatomy and physiology in the Renaissance. He is best remembered as the "Father of Medicine" who devised the code of medical ethics now administered as an oath to beginning medical practitioners.
Descartes, René. Early concept of reflex action.
Descartes postulated that impulses originating at the receptors of the body were carried to the central nervous system where they activated muscles and glands by what he called "reflection."
van Leeuwenhoek, Anthony. Discovery of protozoa.
1675 - 1680
The discoveries of this eccentric Dutch microscopist revealed a whole new world of biology.
Hales, Stephen. First measurement of blood pressure.
This was further proof that bodily processes could be measured quantitatively-more than a century after Harvey's momentous demonstration.
Priestley, J. Discovery of oxygen.
Discovery of this element is of great biological interest because it helped in determining the nature of oxidation and the exact role of respiration in organisms.
Abildgaard, P. First experimental life cycle of a tapeworm.
Life cycles of parasites may be very complicated, involving several hosts. That a parasitic worm could require more than one host was a revolutionary concept in Abildgaard's day and was widely disbelieved until the work of Küchenmeister over 60 years later.
Brown, Robert. First description of cell nucleus.
Others had seen nuclei, but Brown was the first to name the structure and to regard the nucleus as a general phenomenon.
1854: Newport, G. Discovery of the entrance of spermatozoon into a frog's egg.
This was a significant step in cellular embryology, although its real meaning was not revealed until the concept of fertilization as the union of two pronuclei was formulated about 20 years later (Hertwig, 1875).
1900: Landsteiner, Karl. Discovery of blood groups.
This fundamental discovery made possible successful blood transfusions and initiated intense work on the biochemistry of blood.
Ehrlich, Paul. Chemotherapy in treatment of disease.
Discovery of salvarsan as a cure for syphilis represents the first great discovery in this field. Another was the dye sulfanilamide, discovered by Domagk in 1935.