This fundamental discovery made possible successful blood transfusions and initiated intense work on the biochemistry of blood.
Montgomery, T.H. Homologous pairing of maternal and paternal chromosomes in zygotes.
Montgomery showed that in synapsis before reduction division, each pair includes a maternal and a paternal chromosome. This phenomenon, verified a year later by W.S. Sutton, is of fundamental importance in segregation of hereditary factors (genes).
McClung, Clarence E. Discovery of sex chromosomes.
The discovery in grasshoppers that a certain chromosome (X) had a synaptic mate (Y) different in appearance or else lacked a mate altogether gave rise to the theory that certain chromosomes determined sex. H. Henking actually discovered the X chromosome in 1891.
Bayliss, William M., and Ernest H. Starling. Action of the hormone secretin
Demonstration of the action of secretin, a hormone released from the mucosa of the stomach, marked the real birth of the science of endocrinology. It was the first unequivocal proof that physiological functions could be chemically integrated without participation of the nervous system.
Cannon, Walter B. Mechanics of digestion observed by means of x-ray films.
Clever application of x-rays to a study of movements and other aspects of the digestive system has revealed an enormous amount of information on physiology of the alimentary canal. Cannon first used this technique in 1898.
Haldane, John B.S., and John G. Priestley. Role of carbon dioxide in the regulation of breathing.
By their clever technique of obtaining samples of air from lung alveoli, these investigators showed how constancy of carbon dioxide concentration in alveoli and its relation to concentration in blood were the chief regulators of the mechanism of respiration.
Bateson, William, and Reginald C. Punnett. Discovery of linkage of hereditary units.
Although Bateson and Punnett first discovered linkage in sweet peas, it was Morgan and associates who correctly interpreted this great genetic concept. All seven pairs of Mendel's alternative characteristics were on separate chromosomes, which simplified the problem.
1907: Harrison, Ross. Tissue culture technique.
Discovery that gene products are proteins.
Castle, William E., and J.C. Philips. The inviolability of germ cells to somatic cell influences.