European Involvement in Middle East

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European Involvement in Middle East

1096 - 2013

Holy War

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

Done by Roman Catholic Europe to reclaim the Holy Land taken by Muslim conquests of the Levant

Second Crusade

1145 - 1149

Declared by Pope Eugene III in response to the fall of the Country of Edessa; led by King Luis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany with help from other nobles; ultimately ended in defeat for the Crusaders

Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

Also known as Kings' Crusade; attempt to reconquer the Holy Land but failed; resulted in Treaty of Ramia

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by invading through Egypt; resulted in the Latin Empire and the completing of the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church; key turning point in the decline of the empire and of Christianity in the Near East

Fifth Crusade

1213 - 1221

Attempt to reacquire Holy Land by Catholic Europeans by first conquering the Ayyubid state in Egypt; resulted in an eight year peace treaty between the Ayyubid Empire and European kingdoms

Sixth Crusade

1228 - 1229

Attempt to regain Jerusalem; little amount of fighting and more diplomatic maneuvering; resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining control of Jerusalem for fifteen years

Seventh Crusade

1248 - 1254

A decisive Muslim victory, in which King Louis and his troops were defeated and captured then ransomed for 800,000 bezants (Byzantine currency)

Ending of the Holy War

1268 - 1291

Fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli (1289), and Acre (1291) to the Mamluks--last of Christian domination was gone

Eighth Crusade

1270

Launced by King Louis IX of France; resulted in his death, the Treaty of Tunis, and opening of trade with Tunis

Ninth Crusade

1271 - 1272

The last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land; caused by Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis; led by Prince Edward of England; end of Crusades in Middle East

Ottoman Empire

Expansion and Apogee

1453 - 1566

Mehmed II conquers Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire; Selim I (1512-1520) expands into Europe; Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) extends empire over three continents--success of military and political establishment

Fall of Constantinople

1453

Marks the start of the expansion of Ottoman Empire, which includes movement into Europe

Growth of Ottoman Empire

1453 - 1683

Revolts and Revivals

1566 - 1683

Strain under weak rule of following nine sultans

Battle of Vienna

1683

End of Ottoman expansion into Europe and start of the fall of the empire

Stagnation

1683 - 1827

Rule of Ahmed II

1691 - 1695

Rule of Mustafa II

1695 - 1703

Rule of Ahmed III

1703 - 1730

Rule of Mahmud I

1730 - 1754

Rule of Osman III

1754 - 1757

Rule of Mustafa III

1757 - 1774

Rule of Abdul Hamid I

1774 - 1789

Rule of Selim III

1789 - 1807

Rule of Mustafa IV

1807 - 1808

Rule of Mahmud II

1808 - 1839

had to deal with "Eastern Question" (problems caused by decay of the Ottoman Empire); problems of France, Russia, and England, internal conflicts, and military conflicts

Decline

1827 - 1908

Rule of Abd-ul-Mejid I

1839 - 1861

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Fought between the Russian Empire on one side and an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and Ottoman Empire on the other

Rule of Abd-ul-Aziz

1861 - 1876

National Awakening of Bulgaria

1870

Rule of Abdul Hamid II

1876 - 1909

First Constitutional Era

1876 - 1878

Period of constitutional monarchy established by the "Young Ottomans"

Russo-Turkish War

1877 - 1878

Conflict between Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox led by Russian Empire and composed of Balkan States

Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

1908 - 1918

Establishment of the Second Constitutional Era

1908

Cretan union with Greece

1908

Italian War

1911

Balkan Wars

1912 - 1913

Cession of Kuwait and Albania in 1913

Participation in WWI

1914 - 1918

Joined the Central Powers in WWI

Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

1918 - 1922

Division of Ottoman Empire into several new nations

Other Events

Other Significant Events

French campaign in Egypt and Syria

1798 - 1801

Led by Napoleon Bonaparte of France, mainly to undermine British trade routes to India

US and the Middle East

Soviet War in Afghanistan

1979 - 1989

US involvement

Iran-Iraqi war

1980 - 1988

US and western European involvement

al Qaeda

1988 - Present

Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda threat rises

9-11

September 11, 2001

September 11th attacks on US soil by al Qaeda

Afghanistan War

October 7, 2001 - Present

Result of 9-11 attacks; US withdrawal has begun

Iran War

March 20, 2003 - December 15, 2011

Pakistan war

March 16, 2004 - Present