The Americas (1787 - 1800)

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Treaty of Paris

1783

Decrees:
1. Britain would recognise the United States as an Independent Nation
2. The Mississippi river was the western boundary for the region
3. America would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada
4. Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims for property confiscated during the war

Meeting At Mt. Vernon

1785

George Washington held a conference at his home in Mt. Vernon.
Four states attended: Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

Annapolis Convention

1786

5 States attended, and they decided that another meeting should be held in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation

3/5ths Compromise

1787

That each slave counted as 3/5ths of a person. (to determine a state's level of taxation and representation)

Great Compromise

1787

Two house (bicameral) Congress.
1. Senate- Every state has equal representation.
2. House of Representatives- each state represented by size of population (bigger house)

Electoral College System

1787

Each state gets delegates (equal to the amount of senators and representatives in that state) to vote for president, that way the people don't vote directly for a president.

Philadelphia Conference

1787

55 Male delegates where sent to Philadelphia from each of the 13 states (except Rhode Island) to revise the Articles of Confederation

Commercial Compromise

1787

Allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including placing taxes on foreign goods, but it prohibited playing taxes on any exports... So only imports where taxed.

Checks and Balances

1787

Developed by James Madison, and other convention delegates.
They wanted the new constitution to be based off of this system, in which one branch of government has sufficient power to check the others, so no branch has to much/too little power.

Ratification Debate

September 1787 - June 1788

Between...
Federalists- Supported the constitution and strong central government
Anti-Federalists- Didn't support it, and wanted more power in the people

Ratification of Constitution

September 17, 1787

The delegates (also called framers) specified that only 9 out of the 13 states would be required for the constitutions ratification.

The Federalist Papers

October 1787 - August 1788

85 essays written by James Madison (predominantly), Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Presented reasons for believing in each provision in the constitution.

9 States Supported Constitution

June 1788

9th state to join- New Hampshire
(perhaps because the Federalists promised a bill of right)

Washington's Presidency

April 30, 1789 - 1797

Last States to Ratify

November 1789 - May 1790

North Carolina ratified in 1789, and Rhode Island Ratified in 1790

Hamilton's Financial Plan

1790 - 1791

Took place in early 1790s... Consisted of 3 Parts:
1. Pay off national debt at face value and have the federal government assume the war debts of the states
2. Protect the young nation's developing industries and tax on imported goods
3. Creating a national bank, to create stable currency system
....
What had gotten approved:
1.Pay off debt but the state capital would have to be Washington D.C.
2. Taxes lower than Hamilton wanted ( but passed excise tax on whiskey)
3. Washington supported Hamilton and his broad view of the constitution to make a national bank

Bill of Rights

1791

Vermont Seperated from Massachussetts

1791

Kentucky Became State

1792

Proclamation of Neutrality

1793

That in the French revolution we would be neutral in the matter

Jay Treaty

1794

Washington sent John Jay to Britain to talk to them about stopping searching and seizing American ships...
After a year Jay brought back a treaty in which the British agreed to evacuate their posts on U.S. frontier. (but the treaty stated nothing about the seizure)

The Whisky Rebellion

1794

Farmers couldn't pay the tax on whiskey so they rebelled, but then Washington responded to it by federalizing 15,000 state militiamen under the command of Hamilton. Rebellion fell quickly, with no blood loss on either side.
While some applauded his effort to do something about the rebellion, the westerners thought it as the unwarranted use of force on common people.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

1794

Americans were going on the Indians land in Ohio, and the British had been supplying the Indians with guns, enticing them to attack. General Wayne defeated the Indians and got them to sign the Treaty of Greensville ( a year later ) in which they (the Indians) surrendered the Ohio region to the americans

Pinckney Treaty

1795

Spain wanted to draw closer to the Americas so they allowed Americans to trade in the lower Mississippi river and New Orleans. The Spanish also agreed to lowering Florida's northern boundary to the 31st parallel.

Public Land Act

1796

Established orderly procedures for dividing federal lands

Tennessee Became State

1796

Washington's Farewell Address

1796

Assisted by Alexander Hamilton, the president wrote a farewell address... Four main points:
1. not to get involved in European affairs
2. against the U.S. making permanent alliances in foreign affairs
3. not to form political parties
4. to avoid sectionalism