Changes in Industry from 1874-1918 in Chapter 7

Power and Factories

First Drift Mine

01/01/1874 - 01/02/1892

Cause: In 1874, The first draft mine was invented. It was invented by Nicholas Sheran who opened the first coal mine digging into a river valley.

Effect: Power could be generated in a new way and created jobs for immigrants.

The Change from Cottage to Factory

01/01/1874 - 01/01/1918

Note: Although the gradual change took place from 1800-1900, the timeline only reaches to 1874 so that is where it is marked at beginning.

Cause: Spinning, weaving, cutting, sewing and all of the cottage methods were slowly eradicated as much of the work became done by machines in factories.

Effect: Unsafe working conditions arouse and problems became to come up. However, it produced and manufactured goods very quickly.

Copper and Nickel's Company-Inco

01/01/1885 - 01/01/1902

Cause: Samuel Ritchie began prospecting for copper in 1885. He later founded a copper mining company- Canadian Copper Co.-in 1886 which consisted of 25 workers. In 1902, Ritchie and 6 others founded the International Nickel Company-Inco.

Effect: This new metal, nickel was the primary of steel (later to come) and other corrosion-resistant alloys. It provided work in mining and moved the very foundations (pardon the pun) of architecture to where it is now.

First Shaft Mine

01/01/1892 - 01/01/1918

Cause: The shaft mine was invented in 1892. Contrary to the drift mine, this had vertical shafts leading to horizontal passageways as well.

Effect: More jobs could be taken and coal could be mined to better effect than a drift mine creating a better way to generate power.


01/01/1905 - 01/01/1918

Cause: In 1905, Adam Beck invented a hydroelectric plant in Niagara Falls creating electricity to replace steam.

Effect: People's lives were made easier by safer and easier working conditions.


Change in the Indian Act

01/01/1911 - 01/01/1918

Cause: The changes to the Indian Act allowed companies or cities to legally take ownership of reserve land.

Effect: The land became hospitable by immigrants allowing more room for them increasing population and therefore jobs.

Stream of Immigrants

01/01/1913 - 12/31/1913

Cause: In the last year before WWI, over 400,000 immigrants streamed their way into Canada.

Effect: This filled up the jobs and made further advances in industry possible.

Increase in demand

07/28/1914 - 11/11/1918

Cause: WWI caused demand for raw materials hundred-fold. The need for metals to build ships, tanks, artillery and the need for power for transportation, ships, tanks and troops demanded raw materials.

Effect: The mining business was booming. You needed coal to power the machines to build the weapons and coal to power the transportation; coal to power the tanks and coal to power the air force. The need for coal was massive.


GM's Beginning

01/01/1908 - 01/01/1918

Cause: In 1908, R.S. McLaughlin expanded his carriage-building business into automobiles. They built Buick and Chevrolet in Oshawa for Americans. Om 1918, GM of Detroit bought it and Oshawa became a big part of car manufacturing.

Effect: Oshawa is a booming city because of its car industry as well as Detroit. The car became a big part of North America because of it. It also moved transportation along to a whole new level.

The Silver Dart

01/01/1909 - 01/01/1918

Cause: The Silver Dart was the first powered airplane in the British Empire.

Effect: Overseas shipping and trade became common as well as transportation.