Published "On the Origin of Species" which stressed adaptation and phylogeny which influenced behaviorism's ontological foundations (Mahoney, 1989; Moore, 2008)
1832 - 1920
Established the first experimental psychology laboratory (Moore, 2008). Focused on reaction times and introspection – “physiological psychology” (Moore, 2008).
1842 - 1910
A founder of radical empiricism and functionalism (Day, 1983; Moore, 2008; Schneider & Morris, 1987).
G. Stanley Hall
1844 - 1924
Founded the American Psychological Association (APA; Moore, 2008).
Focused on Genetic Psychology (Moore, 2008). Focused on consciousness as subject matter with the use of introspection and questionnaires as the methodologies (Moore, 2008).
1859 - 1924
A biological scientist who expressed a focus on examining ways to control and predict behavior vs. examining true causes of behavior (Mahoney, 1989). He believed behavior was explained in the brain through mechanical reactions to external stimuli; tropism and mechanism (Moore, 2008).
E. B. Titchener
1867 - 1927
Followed structuralism – focused on describing consciousness through reaction times and introspection; focused on “mental life” (Moore, 2008).
E. L. Thorndike
1874 - 1949
Studied the process of learning in animals and humans with a focus on the law of cause and effect (Moore, 2008). Demonstrated that animal behavior could be objectively studied and demonstrated evidence against mentalism (Skinner, 1963).
John B. Watson
1878 - 1958
Termed “behaviorism” (Schneider & Morris, 1987), was the first to advocate for a science of behavior (Skinner, 1963), and studied stimulus-response (S-R) psychology (Moore, 2008).
Edward C. Tolman
1886 - 1959
Established stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) Psychology (or purposeful/molar behaviorism; Chiesa, 1992).
B. F. Skinner
1904 - 1990
Skinner’s radical behaviorism began to dominate psychological literature in the late 1950s (Ruiz, 1995). It incorporated the objective study and distinction of both public and private events (Day, 1983; Moore, 2008; Skinner, 1963).