Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. He created the Newton Laws.
a German zoologist and mining engineer, was born in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (now: Gliwice, Poland).
Known for Uncertainty Principle
German-American rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and, subsequently, in the United States
American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University,now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is best known for writing "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" (1948) and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" (1953),
1945 Atomic bombs fall on cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
1947 India gains independence from Britain in New Delhi
1948 Israel declares independence, achieves statehood
1975 United States loses Vietnam conflict
Germ theory might have been the discovery of bacteria, but the discovery of penicillin was the moment that the medical profession finally had a way to fight back against infections that would have once cost people their lives. Penicillin became the starting point for a whole string of antibiotics, both broad and narrow spectrum. This new way of treatment meant that amputations were significantly reduced, gum infections could be treated, and infections of the blood were no longer fatal.
Frederick Hopkins and a few other scientists discover (in the early 1900′s) that some diseases are caused by deficiencies of certain nutrients, later called vitamins. Through feeding experiments with laboratory animals, Hopkins concludes that these “accessory food factors” are essential to health.
Frederick Banting and his colleagues discover the hormone insulin (1920′s), which helps balance blood sugar levels in diabetes patients and allows them to live normal lives. Before insulin, diabetes meant a slow and certain death. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. When insulin is absent, glucose is not taken up by body cells and the body begins to use fat as an energy source or gluconeogenesis. For example, by transfer of lipids from adipose tissue to the liver for mobilization as an energy source.
Anesthetics are easily one of the most important medical advances in surgical operations. By preventing pain during surgery, surgeons were given the ability to work in completely new ways with the human body, with a lower chance from complications such as shock. With anesthetics, pain no longer became such a huge factor in operations. Not only did this reduce the risk of shock, but it also allowed for more complex and intricate surgical procedures.
Competing scientists Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier separately discover a new retrovirus later dubbed HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and identify it as the causative agent of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) – 1980′s.
discovers quanta - the basis of quantum theory
publishes the Special Theory of Relativity