His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus.
Newton built the first reflecting telescope and developed the theory of colour based on the observasion that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book "On the Origin of Species".
On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon.
He made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
In 1581, when he was studying medicine, he noticed a swinging chandelier, which air currents shifted about to swing in larger and smaller arcs.
In 1667, Isaac Newton returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.
In 1863 Lyell's Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man popularised prehistory, though his caution on evolution disappointed Darwin.
In 1879. Bohr conducted a series of experiments, using his father's laboratory in the university, familiar to him from assisting there since childhood, because the university had no physics laboratory.
During 1911, he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity.
Virchow founded the medical fields of cellular pathology and comparative pathology
In Pasteur's early work as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid. A solution of this compound derived from living things (specifically, wine lees) rotated the plane of polarization of light passing through it.
Alexander Fleming wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain
Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20–21, 1927, made from Roosevelt Field
Charles Drew researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge to developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II