Early education should be natural; children should only be asked to do things that come naturally and are developmentally appropriate. He believed children learned through curiosity and formal instruction should not be used.
Similar to Rousseau, believing nature is important, but more than that believed children learned from their senses and should not be expected to learn to read without lots of instruction.
Followed Pestalozzi's ideas about nature and ideal instruction, but more than that stressed the importance of play.
Standardized testing and reading Readiness became popular methods of determining a child's readiness to learn.
Like Pestalozzi, Montessori also believes in learning through the five senses. She also believed children needed early, orderly, systematic trainings in order to master skills.
Children have different capabilities at different stages(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operations) based on assimilation and accommodation.
Children respond to experiences and learn through imitation and association, conditioning, and repeated steps.
The belief that learning occurs as children acquire new concepts, which is considered schema. Also, the belief that scaffolding helps children focus on what they need to know and do.
academic standards for what every student is expected to learn in each grade level