Jean Jaques Rousseau wanted early education for children to be natural and lead by curiosity.
Combination of natural learning and informal instruction
1746 - 1827
Johann Pestalozzi liked Rousseau's idea of natural learning, but thought it was unrealistic for children to learn completely on their own, so he added informal instruction.
Play is important in learning
1782 - 1852
Friedrich Froebel said that guided, directed, and planned play is important in learning.
Behaviorist learning perspective
B.F. Skinner found that learning is not automatic. Learning requires time on task, structure, routines, and practice.
Senses promote learning
Maria Montessori believed that children needed training in order to master skills. She created environments filled with specific materials for learning and the use of the materials were modeled by the teacher.
John Dewey believed that the curriculum should be centered around the specific interests of the children.
Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget developed a staged theory of development for cognitive development. The stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operations.
Schema and Scaffolding
Lev Vygotsky says that learning occurs as children develop schema. They should be taught by scaffolding the learning instruction.
No child Left Behind
The goal of this program is for every child to become a fluent reader by third grade. Grants from the federal government were awarded to low-achieving districts.
National Early Literacy Panel Report
Identifies the skills and abilities of young children from birth to age 5 that predict later achievement in reading.