5 Major Scientists

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

the Newtonian Revolution to place during the Scientific Revolution.

Antoine Lavoisier

1743 - 1794

the Revolution in Chemistry

Paul Dirac

1902 - 1984

Quantum Electrodynamics

Francis Crick

1916 - 2004

Molecular Biology

James Watson

1928 - 2013

the Structure of DNA

5 Major Events in Science

Gravity Defined

1664 - 1666

Newton defines gravity

The Cell (biology)


The cell discovered by Robert Hooke

The Spectrum


Newton discovers the spectrum

the doppler effect


Christian Andreas Doppler

The Atom Bomb

1939 - 1945

Leo Szilard invented the Atom Bomb

5 Major Medical Scientists

Willem Einthoven

1860 - 1927

invented the first practical electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Karl Landsteiner

1868 - 1943

noted for having first distinguished the main blood groups in 1900 thus allowing for blood transfusions can be given without fear of harming the patient.

Alexander Fleming

1881 - 1955

Creator of Penicillin

Percy Julian

1899 - 1975

American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

Julius Axelrod

1912 - 2004

Honored for his work on the release and reuptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters, a class of chemicals in the brain that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and, as was later discovered, dopamine. Axelrod also made major contributions to the understanding of the pineal gland and how it is regulated during the sleep-wake cycle

5 Medical Advances

prevent scurvy


James Lind , a Scottish naval surgeon, discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy



Edward Jenner develops the process known as vaccination by using the cowpox virus to protect people from smallpox.

Germ theory of disease


According to germ theory, a specific disease is caused by a specific organism.Before this discovery, most doctors believe diseases are caused by spontaneous generation.

aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid)


The juice from willow tree bark had been used as early as 400 BC to relieve pain. 19th century scientists knew that it was the salicylic acid in the willow that made it work, but it irritated the lining of the mouth and stomach.Felix Hoffman synthesizes acetyl salicylic acid, developing what is now the most widely used medicine in the world



Scottish bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin. He shares the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Ernst Chain and Sir Howard Florey.