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Five Influential Scientists in History

Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir

1822 A.D - 1900 A.D

He was a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858 and was commercialized in sufficient quantities to be considered a success; which was a first for the internal combustion engine. When he took up residence in Paris he developed an interest in electroplating which left him to make electrical inventions including an improved electric telegraph.

joseph lister

1827 A.D - 1912 A.D

Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid that was used to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds. He also created many sterilization procedures that are still used today.

Friedrich August Kekule

1829 A.D - 1896 A.D

He was a German organic chemist from the 1850’s until his death he was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe. He was the principle founder of the theory chemical structure.

John Ambrose Fleming

1849 A.D - 1945 A.D

He was an English electrical engineer and physicist he was known for inventing the first vacuum tube. He is also known for his left-hand rule (for motors) and his right-hand rule (for generators). It was a simple way of working out the direction of motion in an electric motor, or the direction of electric current in an electric generator using visual mnemonics.

Albert Abraham Michelson

1852 A.D - 1908 A.D

He was an American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and in 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in physics and was the first American to receive the Nobel Prize in sciences. Albert and Edward Morley performed the Michelson-Morley experiment which attempted to detect the relative motion through the stationary aether wind.

Scientific Discoveries in History

The Copernican Heliocentrism

1543 A.D

Copernican Heliocentrism is an astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus that positioned the sun near the center of the universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets rotating around it in circular paths. It is often regarded as the launching point to modern astronomy and the scientific revolution but the model retained several of the Ptolemaic elements causing inaccuracies.


1821 A.D

The presence and flow of electric charge such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current. Electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves. Electricity can be put to an almost limitless set of applications because of its extraordinary versatility and is used in areas such as transport, heating, lightning, communications, and computation. Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in 1821, and Georg Ohm mathematically analyzed the electric circuit in 1827. Electricity and magnetism were definitively linked in 1861 and 1862 by James Clerk Maxwell.


1859 A.D

Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every biological organization, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. The divergence of life can be inferred from shared sets of biochemical and morphological traits , or by shared DNA sequences.

The Periodic Table

1869 A.D

The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers (number of protons in the atom), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. Dmitri Mendeleev published the first wide known periodic table in 1869 and also predicted some properties of unknown elements that would be expected to fill the gaps of in his table. Elements from atomic numbers 1 to 118 have been either discovered or synthesized. Of these elements all up to and including californium exists naturally; the rest have only been synthesized in laboratories.

The Nuclear Weapon

1939 A.D

An experimental team at Columbia conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the United States on January 25, 1939. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. The first atomic bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first hydrogen bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10,000,000 tons of TNT.

Five Famous Doctors in History

Hippocrates of cos

460 B.C.E - 360 B.C.E

He was the first to believe that thought, ideas, and feelings come from the brain and not the heart. He was the first doctor to precisely characterize the symptoms of pneumonia and epilepsy in children. He believed in the natural healing processes of relaxation. He founded a medical school on the island of Cos.

Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec

1781 A.D - 1836 A.D

He was a French physician who invented the stethoscope in 1816 that enabled doctors to not have to place their ears on the patient’s chest to hear the sound of their heartbeat which was not always clear. This instrument helped him determine diagnoses for autopsies he performed and wrote many journals and clinical terms that are still used today.

Theodor Billroth

1829 A.D - 1894 A.D

Dr. Billroth was responsible for a number of surgical landmarks in surgery such as the esophagectomy which is the removal of all or part of the esophagus. Another surgical landmark is that he performed the first laryngectomy which is the removal of the larynx and he performed the first successful gastroduodenostomy which is a surgical reconstruction procedure by which a new connection between the stomach and the small intestine is created.

Charles Richard Drew

1904 A.D - 1950 A.D

Dr.Charles Richard was an African American physician and medical researcher who focused his knowledge on developing blood banks on a large scale. It caused thousands of lives to be saved in the armed forces when he began in early World War II.

Virginia Apgar

1909 A.D - 1974 A.D

She is highly respected for the development of the Apgar test which is a procedure that is used to determine the health of newborn babies thus decreasing the mortality rate of infants all across the world. She was also dedicated to the advancement of anesthesia and pediatrics.

Five Major Medical Events

The Wheelchair

525 A.D

A Wheelchair is a chair with wheels that is used to be a replacement for walking. They are used by people for whom walking is difficult or impossible due illness, injury, or disability. Wheelchairs can come in many variations such as being motorized or must be propelled by hand. The earliest images of wheelchairs being used specifically to carry people begin to show up in Chinese art in 525 A.D.

Contact Lenses

1887 A.D

A contact lens is a lens placed on the eye and can be worn to correct vision, for cosmetic or for therapeutic reasons. People often wear contact lenses for a number of reasons including avoiding wearing glasses or to change the appearance of their eyes. When compared to spectacles, contact lenses typically provide better peripheral vision, and do not collect moisture such as rain, snow, condensation, or sweat. It has made it ideal to wear them for sports or other outdoor activities.


1895 A.D

Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. A radiograph is the use of X-ray through patient and a capture device then converts them into visible light, it then forms an image. X-rays are aimed at the patient and pass the patient and are filtered through a device called an X-ray filter, to reduce scatter and noise, and strike an undeveloped film, which is held tightly to a screen of light-emitting phosphors in a light-tight cassette.


1928 A.D

In 1928 Alexander Fleming showed that if Penicillium rubens were grown in the appropriate substrate, it would exude a substance with antibiotic properties, which he dubbed penicillin. This observation began the modern era of antibiotic discovery. Howard Walter Florey, Ernst Chain, Norman Heatley developed the use of Penicillin in medicine.


1949 A.D

Ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible abnormalities in the tissue of an organism. Ultrasonography has made it possible to perform both diagnosis and therapeutic procedures.


War of Jenkins' Ear

1739 A.D - 1748 A.D

Was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, captain of a British merchant ship. The story of the separation of Jenkins ear after Spanish coast guards boarded his vessel in 1731, this occurrence provided a reason for war against the Spanish Empire so that they wouldn’t back out of the lucrative asiento contract.

American Revolutionary war

1775 A.D - 1783 A.D

It was a war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but eventually became a war between Britain against and the United States, France, Netherlands and Spain. This resulted in the recognition of the United States as an independent country. This war was influenced by the American Revolution where the colonists claimed that the Stamp Act of 1765 was unconstitutional. The colonists boycotted taxed British tea and led to the Boston Tea Party in 1733, where ship loads of tea were destroyed. London responded by putting the government of Massachusetts under the control of the British army with General Thomas Gage as governor.

Red Cloud's War

1866 A.D - 1868 A.D

It was a conflict in Wyoming and Montana territories between the Lakota, northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho and the United States. The war was fought over the control of the Powder River Country in north-central Wyoming. The Bozeman trail was crossed 3,500 miners, emigrants and others, while crossing the emigrants competed for the diminishing resources near the trail. The war was named an Oglala Lakota chief who led his followers against the presence of U.S military in the area, and was allied with the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The Native Americans were victorious and gained legal control of the Powder River country with the Treaty of Fort Laramie from 1868, although their power only lasted for eight years until the Great Sioux War of 1876.

World War I

1914 A.D - 1918 A.D

It was global war that was centered in Europe which was fought by two alliances called the Allies and the Central powers. The Allies included the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, Japan and the United States who fought against the Central Powers who included Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized; more than 9 million combatants were killed as a result of the technological advancements that led to the increase of lethality of weapons, without the increase of protection or mobility.

World War II

1939 A.D - 1945 A.D

It was a global war that included the vast majority of the world’s nations and including all of the great powers that formed two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It had more than 100 million people serving in total during the war. The major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities to the service of the war and thus erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This is marked by mass amounts of civilian deaths, which included the holocaust and the use of nuclear weapons in warfare, there were over 75 million fatalities which made it the deadliest conflict in human history.