He was a Polish astronomer who made the first mathematically based system of planets going around the sun.
Newton was a figure of undisputed genius and innovation. In all his science (including chemistry) he saw mathematics and numbers as central. He did a lot of work on biblical numerology, and, though aspects of his beliefs were not orthodox, he thought theology very important. In his system of physics, God is essential to the nature and absoluteness of space.
Charles Darwin was an Anglican, but by most accounts he appears to have been largely nominal in his affiliation with the Church of England. the Unitarian Church was considered a relatively mainstream Protestant Christian denomination, although many of its beliefs even then separated it from other Protestant denominations.
Freud was always proud of Jewishness, despite the fact that neither he nor his family were religious in the practicing sense. His nursemaid was a devout Catholic which helped as well.
Albert Einstein was born into a Jewish family and had a lifelong respect for his Jewish heritage.Einstein's Jewish background and upbringing were significant to him, and his Jewish identity was strong, increasingly so as he grew older.
He was a distinguished German and British theoretical physicist. Also he was in the forefront of the two great revolutions in 20th-century physics, relativity theory and quantum mechanics. He contributed to the statistical, probabilistic, uncertain interpretation of quantum experiments known as the Copenhagen Interpretation.
He was a member of Germany's largest Protestant religious body, the Evangelische Kirche. Also he was a Rockefeller scholar at the Neils Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen.