Many war machines used in the defense of Syracuse, compound pulley systems, planetarium, water screw, water organ (possibly), burning mirrors (very unlikely).
Galileo perfected the astronomical telescope, and also promulgated the theory that the Earth and the other planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun. Furthermore, Galileo applied the principles of gravity, to determine that all objects fell at the same speed regardless of their comparative.
Franklin proved that the lightning was a form of electricity, through his famous experiment with the kite. Furthermore he mapped out the Gulf Stream , and recognized that the Aurora Borealis as an electrical phenomenon.
Neils Bohr made fundamental contribution towards the understanding of Atom structure, and Quantum Physics. He was also part of the staff of scientists that worked on the Manhattan Project, which would create the Atomic Bomb.
Stephen Hawking is famous for his groundbreaking work in physics, and cosmology. As well as for several of the books that he has published that have helped make science more accessible to people. Recently he has made the headlines for publishing a book that contained a theory, which in detail explained how the universe was created by science. Eliminating the need for an almighty God.
Copernicus theorized that the sun, not the Earth was the center of our solar system. However his theory did have some flaws, since it stated that all of the other planets orbited around the sun in perfect circles.
The law of Universal Gravitation by Newton states that Gravity is the force that draws objects towards each other. As well as it helped explain why things fall down, and why planets orbit the Sun.
The theory published by Charles Darwin argues that all organisms on Earth develop, evolve, and change gradually over time. These adaptations allow organisms to survive in their environment, and they happen by chance. If a species doesn't successfully adapt it becomes extinct, this process is otherwise known as "Natural Selection".
The theory published by Einstein explains the relationships between speed, time, and distance. This theory states that the speed of light remains the same (186,000 miles/second) regardless of how fast something or someone is moving toward or away from it.
The theory proposed by George Lemaitre, says that all matter in the universe was originally compressed into a tiny dot. Then in less than a second, the dot bloated, and after an explosion matter instantly filled what is now our universe. This particular event also marked the beginning of time.
In the 1860's Louis Pasteur started experimenting with bacteria in the at a time in which people didn't know what caused diseases. He discovered that disease came from microorganisms, and that bacteria could be killed by heat and disinfectant. Based on this research doctors then started sanitizing their hands, as well as their instruments.
The X-Xray was created by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. He figured out that the X-Rays could go through substances such as, flesh and wood. Yet, they were stopped by others for instance by Bone, and Lead. This allow them to be used in order to see broken bones, making them very useful in the world of medicine.
Felix Hoffman developed the Aspirin, by synthesizing salicylic acid found in the Willow Tree. Salicylic Acid found in the Willow Tree was seen as a cure ever since 400 BC., however it irritated the stomach and the mouth. Hoffman synthesized acetyl salicylic acid, creating the most widely used medicine in the world.
Karl Landsteiner studied the effects blood compatibility and rejection, allowing him to develop the ABO system of blood typing. This system classifies human blood into A, B, AB, and O groups. Even still today this system continues to be used to classify human blood types.
In 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, which was Penicillin. He grew it in his lab using mold and fungi. Without antibiotics today many diseases, such as strep throat could be deadly.
Hippocrates established the use of medical medicine, as well as the study of it. Furthermore he developed the Hippocratic Oath, which even some doctors still today take, this oath helps set the codes of practice in the field of medicine.
Galenus was a surgeon for Gladiators, as well as for the Emperor himself in Rome. He was the first to set down the principles of fracture care, surgical technique, and sterility. He wrote extensively, and his writings dominated medical practice for nearly 1500 years.
Vesalius was a physician who lived during the Renaissance period. He revolutionized the world of medicine by his careful description of anatomy of the human body. Later on he wrote the first comprehensive book of human anatomy, solely based on his observations.
Harvey was the first to describe how blood was pumped throughout the body by the heart, and that it recirculated. His discovery was the basis for modern research on the Heart, and blood vessels.
Kuntscher was a German surgeon who developed the nailing of long bone fractures. Thus allowing patients with long bone fractures to rapidly recuperate, instead of laying for months in a hospital bed.