Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
In 1594, Kepler came up with the measurements for the orbits of the planets, which was actually wrong abd assumed were circular. Later, he figured out the planetary orbits are elliptic.
Charles Darwin's theory on evolution was based all life descended from ancestor's.
Louis was known to the public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization
Made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. He developed the model of the atom with the nucleus at the center and electrons in orbit around it, which he compared to the planets orbiting the Sun.
First female doctor.
Discovery of insulin.
Pioneer of artifical organs.
Pioneer of heart transplants.
Pioneer of cloning.