Previously allied with Napoleon, Russia's ruler supported Britain with trade. To teach them a lesson, Napoleon raised an army of six hundred thousand troops. Knowing that they could not defeat Napoleon head-on, Russia pulled back troops. Napoleon was forced keep marching through the freezing cold. Russian troops burned and destroyed there own villages so Napoleons army could not get more supplies. Starving and freezing, these conditions started to kill Napoleon's men. Finally in October 18, Napoleon ordered a retreat. Out of the six hundred thousand, fewer than forty thousand returned.
Weak from his current lose, European powers joined together to attack. They forced Napoleon's troops out of Germany. In the following year, they invaded France forcing Napoleon to give up his crown. He was exiled from France, but given the tiny island of Elba to rule over.
After ten months, Napoleon returned to France. He gathered supporters. Alarmed by his return, these European powers prepared to invade France. Before they could, Napoleon attacked. He targeted two armies, on British, the other Prussian, near the town of Waterloo. He attacked, but the British troops pulled back. They waited for there Prussian reinforcements. Once they arrived, Napoleon knew he lost. Waterloo marked his final defeat. He surrendered and was exiled to St. Helena, where he lived out the remaining six years of his life.