Divine right can be traced back all the way to the ancient Egyptians and there belief that their kings were Pharaohs.
The origins of the democracy can be traced back to Solon, a poet and statesman.
King John agreed to the Magna Carta (great charter) under pressure from many of his countries barons. It placed him and all future rulers of England within the rule of law.
Many rulers after King James the VI took up the theory in their own kingdoms and it became popular again. It gave the king absolute ruling over everything political and spirtual.
It began when Isaac Newton and John Locke published their works and sparked the enlightenment.
Centered on the discussion around the French philosophies.
The first political figure to call himself an anarchist was a French philosopher named Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, this marked the formal creation of anarchism.
The manifesto was published along with many other works at the base of communism, or Marxism.