History Exam #1


Epic of Gilgamesh

2600 BCE

5th king of Uruk; helped protect against rival city Uruk; majorly favored by the Gods

Akkadians migrate in

2340 BCE

led to political change

Sargon of Akkad

2334 BCE

overthrew and became king; established the 1st empire; developed the trading system (silver, tin, wood)

Babylonians migrate in

1900 BCE

Babylonian Empire

1900 BCE - 1600 BCE


1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

the great Babylonian king; "the king of the four quarters of the world"; establish the Hammurabi Law Code

Hittite Empire

1595 BCE

came into Babylonia; military technology+horse-drawn chariots

Assyrian Empire

883 BCE

longest, largest lived of all empires; overtook Mesopotamia and Babylon

King Ashurbanipal

669 BCE - 631 BCE

strong leader; established libraries; collected cuneiform tablets

Persian Empire

558 BCE

Achaemendis and Achaemendis Clan

558 BCE - 330 BCE

dominate and create the first Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great

558 BC - 530 BC

sheepherder w eye for battle tactics; wanted to get rid of intermediaries; becomes King of Persian tribes

Median Rebellion

553 BCE

Cyrus the Great initiates rebellion agains Median overload

Asia and Bactria Expansion

549 BCE - 545 BCE

Cyrus the Great continues to take land in Asia and Bactria (Afghanistan)

Iran Expansion

548 BCE

Cyrus the Great takes Iran under his control

Lydia Expansion

546 BCE

Cyrus the Great takes the Kingdom of Lydia; wealthiest, most productive kingdom; trade, resources, power

Babylonia Expansion

539 BCE

Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonia

Cyrus the Great Dies

530 BCE

Cambyses Takes Over

530 BCE - 522 BCE

son of Cyrus; doesn't lose any territory

Egypt Expansion

525 BCE

Cambyses conquers Egypt

Darius Takes Over

521 BCE - 486 BCE

fellow kingsman of Cyrus; begins massive administration complex; majorly expands,+ takes Mesop Kingdom in Greece; new capital at Persepolis

Persian Wars

500 BCE - 479 BCE

Expansion of the Persian Empire into Greek city-states of Asia Minor started war

Battle of Marathon

490 BCE

caused due to the first attempt of invasion by Persia; battle between citizens of Athens and Persian force; Greeks defeated Persians

Xerxes Takes Over

486 BCE - 465 BCE

son of Darius I; sought to avenge Persian losses and take Greek islands

Battle of Gaugamela

334 BCE - 331 BCE

battle between Alexander the Great and Darius; led to the fall of the Persian Empire

Early Greek Civilization

Establishment of Polis

800 BCE

growth of the poleis, paralleled by the trade and colonization in Med&Black Sea; 100's of independent city-states within Greece

Anatolia/Kingdom of Lydia Conquered

546 BCE

Cyrus the Great conquers

Ionian's Rebel

500 BCE

Ionian Greeks rebel against Persians bc of restrictions (with help of cousins); begins Persian Wars

Battle of Salamis

480 BCE

defeat of Persian Army


479 BCE

defeat of the Persian army

Delian League Formed

478 BCE

unification of Greek Poleis

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

led to the collapse of the Delian League; two sides of city-states against one another; Athens vs. Sparta

Rise of Macedonia

359 BCE - 336 BCE

Philip II

359 BCE - 336 BCE

became King, united all Macedonian clans to conquer all of Greece and some of Persia

Conquering of Greece

350 BCE - 338 BCE

Philip II conquers and unites Greece (first time one king unites all of Greece)

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

becomes king of Greece after Philip II dies

Conquering of Ionia and Anatolia

333 BCE

Alexander the Great takes the first bite of Persia

Conquering of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt

332 BCE

Alexander the Great conquers

Conquering of Mesopotamia

331 BCE

Alexander the Great conquers; sets fire to Persepolis; keeps Persia intact just puts himself as head/King

Hellenistic Era

323 BCE

expansion of Greek cultural traditions; period of time between Alexander the Great's death and the emergence of Rome

Antigonus Emerges

275 BCE

Greece and Macedon


275 BCE



275 BCE

the rest of Achaemenid Empire from Bactria to Anatolia