The Renaissance, meaning "rebirth", experienced the revival of Greek and Roman thinking. Theologian Thomas Aquinas used ideas of Aristotle, a Greek scholar, to support teachings of the Christian church. Through use of logical argument and reason others followed suit. In the late 14th century, the Humanists emerged in Italy and France and developed an interpretation of history and beliefs about human nature, the structure of society and the purpose of life all based on reason. They focused on celebrating human accomplishments. Humanists celebrated human accomplishment and discovered meaning and purpose in love, beauty, art, and personal development. This focus on human accomplishment encouraged the questioning of the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Scholars from the East, in addition to Islamic scholars, had established translations of Greek writings and had developed their own commentaries, which was further translated into European languages and contributed to further thought development and debate regarding individualism within ancient philosophies. Therefore, the revival of Classical Greek and Roman philosophies regarding the central role of the individual in the world and an individual's worth, promoted individualism within Europe.