Development of scientific study of language.
Linguists, such as Bloomfield focused on phonemes and how they join to form ‘larger units of language’, “disregarding meaning and contextual factors”( Silva de Joyce & Feez, 2016, p. 20).
Behaviourist psychology (in particular B.F. Skinner) prevalent during this period (Silva de Joyce & Feez, 2016, p. 20).
Four- step- plan of American education criticised by Bloomfield, resulted in development of phonics approach (Silva de Joyce & Feez, 2016, p.20).
Resulting criticism and opposing view that students learn by recognising whole words and resulting language experience was advocated by Sylvia Ashton Warner (1963) (Silva de Joyce & Feez, 2016, p.20).
Another four - step process, whereby students created own books and class texts, which aligned with view of literacy as "individual practice" (Silva de Joyce & Feez, 2016, p.20).
Silva de Joyce, H., & Feez S. (2016) Literacy: A Field of Evolving Terms, Definitions and Educational Approaches. In: Exploring Literacies. Research and Practice in Applied Linguistics. Palgrave Macmillan, London. pp. 17- 25.