The roots of American educational system are established. Religion was a major reason early settlers came to America and was a major force in shaping colonial schools.
Boston Latin Grammar School
The Evolution of the American High School- This was the first American high school, but it served only the colonial elite. It prepared only males for ministry or Law.
The Massachusetts Acts of 1647
Also called the, "The Old Deluder Satan Act," this law was designed to create readers of the bible. It required that every town with 50 households or more hire a reading/writing teacher. This gave birth to the idea that public education could contribute to the greater good of our country.
Benjamin Franklin opens the Academy of Philadelphia which is free of religious orientation and uniquely American. The school focused on math, navigation, astronomy, bookkeeping, logic, and rhetoric. Both boys and girls were welcomed to attend.
Early National Period
1775 - 1820
During this time the colonies become the United States of America
Land Ordinance passed
Congress passes land ordinance of 1785 which helps fund money for the public schools.
Constitution Removes Religion
The constitution is written in 1787 and adopted in 1789. In the Bill of Right it states that the Government will not select one religion over another. This leads to the government pulling out of the schools.
Common School Movement
1820 - 1865
Attempt to make public school available to children in the United States. States and local governments taxed citizens to support local schools, educators attempt to increase attendance in poor an minority communities, states created state ed departments, educators organized schools by grade level and standardized curriculum.
By 1865, 50% of AMerican children were enrolled in public school and 28 of the 35 states had state boards of education.
First English Classical School
Boston established first English Classical School which was a secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys who did not intend to attend go to college.
First Compulsory School Attendance Law
Horace Mann is the secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education from 1837-1848. He helped get 50 new secondary schools built, increased teacher salaries by 50%, and passed the nations first compulsory school attendance law.
Booker T washington builds and opens vocational school for African Americans.
Native Americans Education
U.S. Government begins building boarding schools for Native Americans. they have recently signed treaties with the Native Americans.
Committee of Ten
The National Educational Association appointed a group called the committee of ten to create standards and methods for high schools. They concluded that those who are not college bound need the same instruction as those who are college bound, a debate that still exist today.
1900 - 2000
20th century teaching and learning involved some significant changes in America.
First Junior High
The first junior high of grades 7, 8, and 9 opened in Columbus Ohio. The concept quickly spread and by 1926 there were junior high schools in 800 different school systems.
Commission of Reorganization of Secondary Education
Created the Principles of Education, including applied goals in health and civic education
The creation of Job Corp served to help young people learn marketable skills while working in government projects.
The Modern Era
1946 - Present
Schools become Instruments of national purpose and social change
Brown V. Board of Education Topeka
This Case stated that segregation in schools was not right. It set the president that by segregating schools based on race/color students were made to feel a sense of inferiority which is wrong
National Defense Education Act
Congress passed this Act to enhance "security of the nation" by improving instruction in math, science, and foreign languages after Russia landed on the moon in 1957.
Increase Fed Funding k-12 Education
1964 - 1968
During the War On Poverty movement Federal funding for education grew from $900 Million and about 4.4% spent on education to $3 Billion and 8.8% of the total education budget under President Johnson's Initiative.
A program designed for children ages 3-5 years old with 2 goals in mind.
1)Stimulate academic achievement development of low-income pre-schoolers,
2) educate and involve parents in the education of their children.
Creation of Middle Schools
In an attempt to target grades 6-8 and to meet the social, emotional and intellectual needs of a specific time in a childs life middle schools were created.
Indian Education Act
This establishes office of Indian Education
Congress passes Public Law 94-142, The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which required a free and appropriate public education for all students, including those with exceptionalities.
Department of Education
The Department of Education was created in 1979 and was originally part of the Department of HEalth.
Native Americans Languages Act
The Native American Languages Act protects the languages and cultures of Native Americans
No Child Left Behind an initiative that was started in 2001 to improve students academically