Major Reliugious Traditions Timeline

Buddaism

Birth of Siddhartha Guatama.

486 BCE

The First Council settles on the teachings of the Buddha

400 BCE - 350 BCE

The Second Council meets and splits into the Theravadins and the Mahasanghikas.

306 BCE

Buddhism spreads to China.

0 BCE - 100

Buddhism spreads to Korea.

372

Buddhism spreads to Japan.

538

Vajrayana tradition established in Tibet. Muslim invasions of India.

600 - 700

Nichiren Daishonen (Japanese reformer) proclaims superiority of the Lotus Sutra.

1222 - 1282

Buddhist Study Group formed (Melbourne)—1st Australian Buddhist organisation.

1938

Buddhist Society of NSW—oldest Buddhist org. currently in operation in Aus.

1953

Indo-Chinese refugees increase the Buddhist population in Australia.

1970 - 1980

Hinduism

Indus valley civilisation.

3000 BCE - 1700 BCE

Systematic development of various schools of classical Hindu thought.

100 BCE

Gupta Empire (N. India) ushers in the classical period of Hindu civilisation

300 CE - 500 CE

lasts until about 650.

Shankara, the teacher of Advaita (nonduality).

788 CE - 820 Ce

Ramanuja establishes a philosophy based upon devotion to Vishnu.

1017 - 1137

(Religious teacher)

Defeat of the Hindu ruler Prithivi Raja by Muhammad Ghuri.

1192

Commencement of Muslim rule in northern India.

1192

Vallabha, popularise devotion to Krishna in N. India.

1479 - 1531

(Religious teacher)

Tulsidas popularises devotion to Rama in N. India

1532 - 1623

(thru his retelling of the Ramayana.)

British control of Bengal

1757

Ramakrishna famous mystic of Bengal.

1836 - 1886

Swami Vivekananda, spreads Hinduism in Europe + America.

1863 - 1902

(Disciple of Ramakrishna) Also founds Ramakrishna Mission.

Mahatma Gandhi

1869 - 1948

Ramana Maharshi, famous saint in the tradition of Advaita.

1879 - 1950

Swami Prabhupanda founds the Hare Krishna movement.

1896 - 1977

Spreads to Australia in 1969

The fi rst Hindu Temple to be built in Australia— Sri Mandir Temple.

1977

Saiva Manram Society formed to build a temple for Lord Murukan.

1985

Islam

Birth of Muhammad.

570 CE

Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Madina. Muslim era deemed to begin.

622 CE

Battle of Badr. Muhammad defeats a Meccan army sent against him.

624 CE

Death of Muhammad.

632 CE

Arab conquest of Jerusalem.

638

Arab conquest of Egypt.

641

Death of Husayn.

680

Building of Baghdad.

756

Al- Ghazali- integration of mysticism+ faithfulness to legal obligation

1058 - 1111

('renewer’ of Islam)

Establishment of the fi rst Delhi sultanates.

1206

Period of the Ottoman dynasty.

1281 - 1922

The Ottomans capture Constantinople.

1453

Final expulsion of Muslims from Spain.

1492

The Ottomans conquer Egypt.

1517

Muhammad ‘Ali becomes governor of Egypt,

1805

First Mosque in New South Wales at Broken Hill.

1891

Abdl al’Aziz establishes himself as king of Saudi Arabia.

1926

Founding of the radical Islamic organisation, the Muslim Brotherhood.

1928

Egyptian revolution abolishes the monarchy. King Farouk exiled.

1952

Iranian Revolution. Ayatullah Khomeini establishes the Islamic Republic of Iran.

1978

Death of Khomeini.

1989

Judaism

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob

1700 BCE

Exodus from Egypt

1200 BCE

Isaiah's prophecies

725 BCE

Maccabees Revolt

165 BCE

Mishnah completed

200 CE

Birth of Rashi

1040

Birth of Maimonides.

1138

Black Death; Jews massacred.

1347 - 1350

Chevra Kadisha established in Sydney.

1817

Signifi cant Jewish migration to Australia.

1850 - 1860

Ghettos abolished in Italy.

1870

Zionist movement established.

1879

Balfour Declaration.

1917

School of Hillel.

35

The Shoah.

1942 - 1945

State of Israel created.

1948

Israel victorious over Egyptian, Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi forces(6day War)

1967

Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.

1979

Israel–PLO Peace Accord.

1994

Israel–Jordan Declaration.

1994

Yitchak Rabin (Israel Prime Minister) assassinated.

1995

Israel/Hizbollah War.

2007

Christianity

Birth of Jesus.

6 BCE - 4 BCE

Death of Jesus.

30 CE

Edict of Milan ends persecution of Christians

313

Schism between the Latin Western Church and the Greek Eastern Church.

1054

Luther posts his Ninety-fi ve Theses in Wittenberg.

1517

Henry VIII proclaimed Supreme Head of the Church of England.

1534

Council of Trent.

1545 - 1563

Catholic missionary activity begins.

1622

Caroline Chisholm begins her work.

1836

Sisters of St Joseph founded in South Australia.

1866

First Vatican Council.

1869 - 1870

St Vincent de Paul Society founded.

1881

Student Christian Movement established.

1896

Assemblies of God begun.

1914

Australian Council for the World Council of Churches established.

1946

World Council of Churches begun.

1948

Second Vatican Council.

1962 - 1965

Gospel of Mark

65

Lutherans unite.

1966

Gospel of Matthew and Luke

70

Gospel of John

75

Uniting Church formed.

1977

National Council of Churches formed.

1994

Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justifi cation (Lutherans and Catholics).

1999

Other

Aboriginal people are well established thru out coastal + mainland Aus. and Tas.

18000 BCE

Land bridges between mainland Aus. and Tas. are flooded, isolating Ab.

11000 BCE - 1500

Tasmanian Aboriginal people become isolated for the next 12 000 - 13 000 years.

Settlement of Pacific Islands. (1000yrs later) Dingos arrives in Aus.

4000 BCE

Dingos are found within a number of dreamtime stories

Zarathushtra lived. Anywhere from 1500 to 1000 BCE.

1500 BCE - 1000 BCE

The Gathas, core text of the faith written.

1500 BCE - 1000 BCE

Zoroastrianism founded about 3500 years ago by the prophet Zarathushtra

1500 BCE

(ancient religion of Persia)

Shinto already present in Japan

500 BCE

1st written volumes of Shinto stories were commissioned + completed

712 CE - 720 CE

(the Kojiki and the Nihong)

Aztec Empire arose

1300 CE - 1400

The birth of Sikhism's founder, Guru Nanak, at village Talwandi

1469

Guru Nanak proclaims 'there is no Hindu, there is no Muslim'-Sikhism is founded.

1507

The fall of the aztecs

1519 CE

The Golden temple is built

1601

Also known as Darbar Sahib or Harmandir

Bahai- the life of Báb

1819 - 1850

Mirza 'Ali Mohammad of Shiraz in Iran proclaimed the imminent appearance of a new messenger of God who would overturn old beliefs and customs and usher in a new era. He identified himself as the forerunner of this prophet, "the Báb" .

First Anglo-Sikh War

1845 - 1846

Second Anglo-Sikh War

1848 - 1849

Báb's earliest disciple, Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri, (Bahá'u'lláh) was arrested

1852 - 1853

Here he realised he was the prophet whose coming had been predicted by the Bab.

Bahá'u'lláh declared that he was the messenger of God foretold by the Bab.

1863

Before Bahá'u'lláh died

1892

India's British rulers pass the Anand Marriage Act, reinforcing Sikh identity.

1909

The Bahá'í faith underwent a rapid expansion

1960 - 2000

beginning in the 1960s, and by the late 20th century it had more than 150 national spiritual assemblies (national governing bodies) and about 20,000 local spiritual assemblies worldwide.

Violence against Sikhs after killing of India Gandhi

1984