The earliest known map is a wall painting of the settlement of Catal Hyuk, in Ankara, Turkey. It appears to be the plan of the settlement showing 80 buildings and a local mountain.
Babylonian Clay Tablets
The next earliest maps are from the Babylonian empire and consist of scratched clay tablets that would fit in the palm of your hand.
First Map of the Moon
The first known map of the moon was discovered in an ancient tomb in Knowth, Ireland. The ancient people of this area were said to worship the moon.
Map of Babylonian Empire
The Babylonian maps now had evolved into the entire empire, rather than one location. This map depicts a spherical representation of the earth.
Pythagoras proposed the earth is a sphere
Based on his observations of the moon and the way the light reflecting from the sun was shadowed by the earth, Pythagoras suggested the earth was also a sphere.
Eratosthenes proposes the first highly accurate circumference of the earth
Using geometry and the measurement of angles of the sun's shadow on the summer solstice in two different cities, Eratosthenes was able to measure the circumference of the earth.
Hipparchus creates early system of latitude based on the sun
Hipparchus tried to establish a scientific rationale for placement of a coordinate grid based on a spherical surface of the earth. He described 11 east-west parallel lines such that all of the places on the same line had the same length of day.
Ptolemy creates world map with coordinates for 8,000 locations
Greek philosopher Ptolemy created an 8-volume set of books, including the written coordinates for 8,000 places.
Roman Empire collapses, bringing scientific cartography to a halt
During the time between the fall of the Roman Empire (476 CE) and the resurgence of cartography in this part of the world in the fourteenth century, a religious view of the world dominated and its maps showed the world as described by the bible.
Al-Khwarizmi produces world map
Progress continued in cartography in other places, especially the Arabic world which had access to a number of Greek texts. Al-Khwarizmi produced a book similar to Ptolemy's, with a relatively accurate map for his own region of the Middle East.