Urbanization of Europe


Roman Empire 800 BC

800 BC

w City of Rome as sui generis "as its own kind, unique in characteristics"
□ Most important cities in Europe are based on Roman Garrison (London, Paris, Milan) towns connected to Rome by roads and sea routes (heart of urban system in contemporary Europe), cities surrounding the Aegean Sea
□ From organic to planned urban development; grid iron pattern, Miletus

Etruscan Cities and Rome

800 BC

Etruscan cities created/based around mausoleums
□ Polytheism, many cities started out as clusters of temples, provided one of the focal points for urban development
□ Generated a massive agricultural surplus, a highly level of productivity that could support an urban population
□ Large cities such as Athens created colonizes and then moved elsewhere
® Branches from the original settlement; were not ruled as foreign territories but self governing
® Greeks favored costal locations; the Aegean Sea is extremely important "sea going/oriented" as it was the main mode of transportation, food and wealth

Roman Empire Expansion

400 BC

1) Romans were great borrowers/imitators and then appeared to have invented it when documenting history
2) Cities were based around basic principles, adept to doing things in a practical way
3) Location is what makes it successful, its in between worlds and can take from/play both sides; based around one city, Rome (7 Hills of Rome)
a) Extremely large city at this time; the empire existed to support/serve Rome
4) Surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
5) Senatorial Provinces (less coastal), Imperial Provinces (more coastal) and Client States**few of these
6) Hierarchy: Republic-->Dictator "bread and circuses" energy in the city was given to feeding the free population and entertainment
7) "autarky" self sufficiency

Macedonian Empire

338 BC

Series of laws connected with ownership and property "title"

Roman Empire 133 BC

133 BC

□ Political life dried up, became dominantly religious and economic
□ Cities began to be planned

Fall of Rome in the West

400 AD - 500 AD

Medieval Rebirth

1100 AD - 1400 AD

WHERE? Tuscany, Po Valley, Northeastern Italy, Rhineland, Flanders
Roman Remains: Catholic Church (centers of monastic orders, spin offs from monasteries) defense sites (walls), trade** links (ports on sea coasts, rivers), local raw materials for the development of low tech labor intensive artisanal production (textiles and armory)

FORM of Cities: high density, social segregation by place of origin/ethnicity, churches vital party of cityscapes

The Black Plague

1300 AD

(rates and fleas as vectors, spread mnemonically-through the lungs, high density living) 30 million to 60 million people from 1100 AD-1300 AD, however populations were extremely rural, urban life was a minority during the Plague


1750 AD - 1920 AD

Began in England mid 18th century
Led to new cities growing from villages in the countryside
Locations associated with energy sources (water power, steam power/coal)
By the late 19th century electricity allowed greater flexibility in industrial location
Example of Manchester; rural village slowly through accretion; Manchester becomes part of the textile industry
IR and New Cities
Proto-IR: Phase 1
A. Workshops in the countryside near a power source (textiles, iron)
B. Scaling up to factories-economies of scale
C. New technologies: process
a. (steam engines-Newcomen's, mechanical looms) and product (locomotives, concrete, tarred roads, steel ships, etc.)
D. National and colonial markets for resources and consumption of products (textiles, other mass produced goods)
E. Cities specialized (agglomeration economies)



1400 AD - 1600 AD

makeover of the cities in Northern and Central Italy
-Building in a grand manner
-connection to (A) wealth and (B) rediscovery of ancient Greeks and Romans (art and science) [access to Arab world]
-artists worked for commission
-wealth of cities reflected in "new" aspects of the cities: buildings, churches, painting, sculptures; about building to impress people (for decoration), not about functionality

-Competition between rulers in church and palace building; reinstated the skeptical imagination which lead to increased skepticism/more critical approach to knowledge (secular rationality)-->Protestant Reformation
-concentrated in Central and Northern Italy (Rome, Florence, Venice) and scattered further northwards


1600 AD - 1750 AD

had heavy government control; colonialism; minimizing imports, maxing exports; maxing the strength on the territory of the economy


1920 AD - 2013 AD