American Literature C 1861-1870

Daylon, Sung, Bill

Race

Race

1861 - 1865

178,975 black men fought for the Union during the Civil War in the 1860s. They fought gamely at many battles, particularly the unsuccessful attempt to take a huge Confederate installation at Ft. Wagner, S.C., in the fall of 1863.

Union Army

1862

Congress authorizes the Union Army to accept African-American soldiers.

Union Army

13th Amendment

1865

The 13th Amendment abolishes enslavement in the United States.

The 13th Amendment

Freedom Bureau

1865

Freedmen's Bureau is established to aid freed African Americans.

Freedom Bureau

Fourteenth Amendment

1868

In the United States, the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified. This overturns the Dred Scott case. It entitles all persons born or naturalized in the United States to citizenship and equal protection under the law. Civil rights are not extended to Indians or anyone who has held office in the Confederacy.

Fourteenth Amendment

Lifestyle

Lifestyle

1861 - 1870

Life in the 1860s was close to the Industrial Revolution. Life was often hard but there were many things that were also beneficial, such as improved health care (the invention of the syringe greatly improved the quality of the health care available at the time).
The work of a woman seems to remain somewhat similar to previous decades. They remained mostly housewives and worked predominantly in the home cooking, making clothing, cleaning, etc. Some women, however, sought to have similar or the same jobs as men. Some women even attempted, some successfully, to join the military in the Civil War.

Paper Money

1861

In the United States the first paper money is issued.

Paper Money

Homestead Act

1862

Homestead Act offers 160 acres of public land in the western United States to settlers willing to settle on the land for 5 years.

Homestead Act

Free Mail Delivery

1863

Congress initiates free mail delivery in cities.

Nickel

1866

Congress authorizes a five cent coin called the nickel.

Nickel

Lifestyle

1867 - 1870

The roles of men also remained the same, had hunting/gathering jobs as well as working on farms, etc. Many men joined the military during the Civil War.
Slavery was still an issue in the 1860s and was still causing a lot of problems. Many blacks, however, managed to sneak into the military or were recruited in the north, like in the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, which was an all-black regiment, excluding the commander.

Historical Events

Civil War

1861 - 1865

The American Civil War begins on April 12, 1861 when Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War was fought over the secession of the Southern states because of disagreements on the issue of slavery. The American Civil War had, by percentage, the largest amount of casualties of every American war. The American Civil War ends with Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army surrendering to Union forces at the Appomattox Court House in Appomattox, Virginia on April 9, 1865

Civil War

Abraham Lincoln's Presidency

1861 - 1865

Abraham Lincoln became the President of the United States in 1861 at the beginning of the American Civil War. During his presidency, Lincoln was determined in his efforts to rejoin the Union, abolish slavery in the South, and free all slaves and give them equal rights. Lincoln was President of the United States until 1865 when he was assassinated at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth.

Presidency

Fort Sumter

1861

South Carolina harbor is bombarded for 34 hours by Confederate forces after the U.S. Army commander failed to evacuate, thus starting the four years of conflict and the U.S. Civil War.

Fort Sumter

The Battle of Gettysburg

1863

The Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania marks a turning point in the Civil War, as Confederate forces retreat to the South after losing this important battle.

The Battle of Gettysburg

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Abraham Lincoln release the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all blacks who were enslaved in the Confederacy, became law.

Russian Cotton Shortage

1863

The U.S. civil war has cut Russia off from its primary source of cotton. Cotton growing in Central Asia has become of greater importance to the Russians, and Russia sends its military into Central Asia, where people are sparse, largely tribal, economically undeveloped, and Muslim.

Russian Cotton Shortage

New York Draft Riots

1863

Weakening the Confederacy

1864

General Sherman and 62,000 Union soldiers sweep a 60-mile wide path of destruction in Georgia, severely weakening the Confederacy.

Weakening the Confederacy

ASPCA

1866

The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded.

http://www.aspca.org/about-us/history.aspx

Reconstruction Act

1867

In the United States, the Republican Party has gained more seats in Congress, and Congress overrides President Andrew Johnson's veto of the "Reconstruction Act." An army, including a black militia, is sent to the South to enforce the law.

Reconstruction Act

New Mexico.

1867

The United States Congress abolishes peonage in the territory of New Mexico.

Alaska

1867

The United States purchases the Alaska territory from Russia.

Alaska

All-Black Colleges

1867

In the U.S., five all-black colleges are founded: Howard University in Washington D.C., Morgan State College in Maryland, Talladega College in Alabama, St. Augustine's College and Johnson C. Smith College in North Carolina.

All-Black Colleges

Reconstructed Governments

1868

Reconstructed governments had been set up in Arkansas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina and South Carolina.

Reconstructed Governments

A Skating Congress

1868

A skating congress is held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to set regulations for the increasingly popular sport of ice skating.

Wyoming, Right of vote

1869

The Territory of Wyoming allows women to vote.

Right of vote

The National Woman Suffrage Association

1869

The National Woman Suffrage Association is formed with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its first president.

The National Woman Suffrage Association

American Football

1869

The first collegiate American Football match was held in 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University.

Utah, Right of vote

1870

The Territory of Utah allows women to vote.

Right of vote

Mine Safety Act

1870

In Pennsylvania a coal mine fire suffocates 179 men. The state responds by passing mine safety laws.

Mine Safety Act

Technology

Winchester Repeating Rifle

1860

Oliver Winchester invented his repeating rifle, which could eject the spent cartridge and load an unfired cartridge into the chamber with a simple mechanical action. This made firing a rifle much faster than firing the previously used muskets. Winchester repeating rifles were used heavily in the Civil War by both sides, which in turn caused death tolls in the war rise.

The Telegraph Connects the West Coast to the East Coast

1861

On October 24, 1861, the Telegraph lines finally connected the East and West coasts of the United States. This made communication no longer rely on transportation.

Invention of the Kinematoscope

1861

The Kinematoscope was a device that used stereoscopic methods to create the illusion of a motion picture.

Invention of the Double-Barreled Cannon

1863

Experimental double-barreled cannons were invented in 1863. They were intended to fire two cannon balls that were connected to one another by a chain simultaneously.

Gatling Gun

1864

The Gatling Gun, a hand-cranked automatic machine gun designed by Richard Gatling in 1861, was put into use by both the Union and the Confederacy during the Civil War

Gatling Gun

Invention of the Rotary Printing Press

1865

The Rotary Printing Press was a device that could feed paper from a large roll and printing both sides of the paper at the same. This machine became the American standard for printing presses. It did, however, kill its inventor when he accidentally fell into one of the machine's presses.

Dynamite

1866

Dynamite, a powerful explosive, was invented by Alfred Nobel. Dynamite was used extensively for many things. Some uses include: warfare, destroying items (buildings, wagons, etc.), mining, et cetera.

Typewriter

1868

In 1868, the typewriter was invented. This invention was very prominent. This invention allowed individuals to create literary works without requiring ink pens. A skilled typist could type on a typewriter much faster than traditionally writing on a paper, while having more legible print. This invention could have possibly sparked literary interest in more people throughout the United States.

Invention of the Submarine

1869

The modern military submarine boat was invented in 1869.

Invention of the Submarine