American Literature C 1871-1880

Mathias & Sam

History

Grant is President

November 1872 - November 1876

Grant was reelected in 1992 and was President until 1976

Grant

Panic of 1873

1873 - 1878

The investment firm of Jay Cooke and Company went bankrupt in September 1873 as a result of rampant speculation in railroads. The stock market dropped sharply and caused numerous businesses to fail.
The Panic of 1873 caused approximately three million Americans to lose their jobs, the collapse in food prices and great poverty in rural America.

Panic of 1873

J. F. Glidden invented barbed wire

1874

The barbed wire becomes available, thus making possible the inexpensive enclosure of grazing lands in the west.

Barbed Wire

Greenback Party was established

November 1874

The Greenback Party was established in the United States. Its constituency were the farmers and workers adversely affected by the Panic of 1873.

Greenback Party

Civil Rights Act

1875

The Civil Rights Act states that no citizen can be denied equal use of public facilities.

Civil Rights Act

Rutherford B. Hayes is President

November 7, 1876 - November 7, 1880

In an election marred by fraud, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) is elected president over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden after compromising with southern Democrats over the restriction of Reconstruction. Tilden receives 4,284,020 popular votes and Hayes receives 4,036,572.

Hayes

First telephone exchange

1878

The first regular telephone exchange was established in New Haven in 1878.

Telephone

Edison developed the lightbulb

1879

Contrary to popular belief, he didn't "invent" the lightbulb, but rather he improved upon a 50-year-old idea. In 1879, using lower current electricity, a small carbonized filament, and an improved vacuum inside the globe, he was able to produce a reliable, long-lasting source of light.

Edison
Lightbulb

Culture

P.T. Barnum's the "Greatest Show on Earth" begins

1871

In 1871 P.T. Barnum started up the "Greatest Show on Earth" in Brooklyn. The Circus quickly became a very popular event for families.
Greatest Show on Earth

Rowing was introduced to American colleges

1873

The sport rowing came over from England and was popular at universities like Yale, Harvard and Brown.

Rowing

The sport of Polo came to America

1876

In 1876, James Gordon Bennett, a noted American publisher, introduced the sport of polo to New York City.

Polo

National League of Baseball is founded

Feb 2, 1876

On February 2, 1876, the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, which comes to be more commonly known as the National League, is formed. Chicago businessman William Hulbert formed the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs to replace the National Association, which he believed was mismanaged and corrupt.

National League of Baseball

Edison invented the phonograph

1877

Edison invented the phonograph, a device for the recording and reproduction of sound.

Phonograph

Literature

Twain, ROUGHING IT

1872

Published early in 1872, Mark Twain's second major work is about going west to dig for wealth in the rocks of Nevada and ultimately finding it instead as a writer and entertainer. It was written between 1870 and the end of 1871, and based on experiences MT had had (mostly as Samuel Clemens, of course) between 1861 and 1866. In between these two sets of dates, in 1867, the transcontinental railroad was completed, an event which, Mark Twain wrote his publisher, "has turned so much attention in that direction" -- that is, to the West. As a travel narrative that keeps going west, the book was written and advertised as a companion to the eastward moving Innocents Abroad. During the long and often difficult period of writing it, MT's mood swung often between discouragement and enthusiasm. ROUGHING IT sold well, though it was never as popular with American readers as Innocents . Its ultimate value to MT may have been to turn his imagination in directions that became, as his career went on, the sources of his greatest power -- that is, to vernacular American experience and toward his own past.

ROUGHING IT

Twain, ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER

1876

Not counting The Gilded Age, which was co-authored with Charles Dudley Warner, THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER was Mark Twain's first novel. By the time Mark Twain died, it had become an American classic, and it remains perhaps the best-loved of all his books among general readers. When it first came out in 1876, however, it was comparatively a failure. Despite Mark Twain's determination "that Tom shall outsell any previous book of mine," the American Publishing Co. sold less than 24,000 copies in the book's first year (compared, for example, to 70,000 for Innocents Abroad in a comparable period). As an imaginative act, Tom Sawyer led directly on to the greatness of Huckleberry Finn and Mark Twain's other fictions of childhood or the Mississippi valley. As a commercial disaster, it pushed Mark Twain in the direction that would lead him to create his own publishing company.

ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER

Whitman, LEAVES OF GRASS

1876

LEAVES OF GRASS is a collection of poetry written over Walt Whitman's entire lifetime organized thematically into sections. Whitman revised and added to the book throughout his life, the final edition being published only months before his death in 1891. Whitman was intentional in not organizing the book in any chronological way. Instead, he was concerned with the journey of the poetry. He desired that the reader would see a self formed through the words and themes of the book.

LEAVES OF GRASS

Charlot, HE HAS FILLED GRAVES WITH OUR BONES

1876

Charlot spoke to his people in 1876 about the white man, at the time when the whites were attempting to drive the Flatheads from their ancestral lands in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana.
Charlot

Henry James, DAISY MILLER

1878

A novel by Henry James about an expatriate's effort to understand and deal with a charming, independent, but uninformed heroine who poses a strong challenge to conservative manners.

Henry James

Rabun Gap Area

Rabun County courthouse moved into Masonic Hall

1878

(Ritchie, Andrew Jackson. Sketches of Rabun County History, 1819-1948. Lakemont, GA: Printed in the United States of America by Copple House, 1948. Print.)