American Literature C 1881-1890

Lydia Chen & Tracey Shi & Harry Wang

Literature

A CENTURY OF DISHONOR

1881

Helen Hunt Jackson
Chronicles the federal government's treatment of Native Americans.
A Century of Dishonor

THE CRITIC

1881 - 1906

Edited by Jeannette and Joseph Gilder, THE CRITIC is one of the first magazines to welcome Whitman's writing.
The Critic

THE STORY OF A COUNTRY TOWN

1883

E. W. Howe
THE STORY OF A COUNTRY TOWN is a novel by E. W. Howe, published in 1883. It was an immediate success, going through many printings, and reviewed favorably by Mark Twain and William Dean Howells. The action of the novel was placed in Twin Mounds, a fictional city in the American Midwest.
eBook of The story of a Country Town

LIFE ON THE MISSISSIPPI

1883

LIFE ON THE MISSISSIPPI (1883) is a memoir by Mark Twain of his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War, and also a travel book, recounting his trip along the Mississippi from St. Louis to New Orleans many years after the War.
Life on the Mississippi

IN THE TENNESSEE MOUNTAINS

1884

Charles Egbert Craddock (Mary N. Murfree)
It is a collection of local color stories.

Online text of In the Tennessee Mountains

THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN

1884

It was written by Mark Twain. THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN is generally considered one of the most important books in American literature—a book that continues to influence subsequent novels and generate scholarly discussion more than a century after it was written. Hungry for comradeship, the mischievous Huck Finn befriends an African American man named Jim. Together they raft down the Mississippi River, Huck escaping from his cruel father and Jim escaping from enslavement. Along the way Jim helps Huck learn the nature of friendship and the meaning of freedom.

online text of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

THE RISE OF SILAS LAPHAM

1885

THE RISE OF SILAS LAPHAM is a realistic novel by William Dean Howells published in 1885. The story follows the materialistic rise of Silas Lapham from rags to riches, and his ensuing moral susceptibility. Silas earns a fortune in the paint business, but he lacks social standards, which he tries to attain through his daughter's marriage into the aristocratic Corey family. Silas's morality does not fail him. He loses his money but makes the right moral decision when his partner proposes the unethical selling of the mills to English settlers.
The Rise of Silas Lapham
online text of The Rise of Silas

Birth of Ezra Pound

1885

The great American poet Ezra Pound was born on October 30, 1885 in Hailey, Idaho. He challenged many common view of his time and created a new tradition of poetic writing in America.

Biography of Ezra Pound
works by Ezra Pound

IN OLE VIRGINA OR MARSE CHAN AND OTHER STORIES

1887

Thomas Nelson Page
It was published in The Century’s April 1884 issue, uses a faithful ex-slave narrator to tell the tale of a young southerner who died for the southern cause and placed duty and honor above all personal gain.
online text of In Ole Virginia or Marse Chan and Other Stories
In Ole Virginia or Marse Chan and Other Stories

RANCH LIFE AND THE HUNTING TRAIL

1888

Theodore Roosevelt

After the death of his first wife, Roosevelt set off to the frontier, eventually settling his own ranch in the Dakota Territory. Covering the years of 1884–1886, Roosevelt records, with obvious joy, his experiences on the ranch, from the people (and animals) that he meets, his adventures on the hunt, the excitement of the round up, to the everyday life on the ranch.
online text of Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail

A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT

1889

Mark Twain
A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. The book was originally titled A Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Some early editions are titled A YANKEE ATTHE COURT OF KING ARTHUR.
In it, a Yankee engineer from Connecticut is accidentally transported back in time to the court of King Arthur, where he fools the inhabitants of that time into thinking he is a magician - and soon uses his knowledge of modern technology to become a "magician" in earnest, stunning the English of the Early Middle Ages with such feats as demolitions, fireworks and the shoring up of a holy well. He attempts to modernize the past, but in the end he is unable to prevent the death of Arthur and an interdict against him by the Catholic Church of the time, which grows fearful of his power.
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
online text of A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

THE WINNING OF THE WEST

1889

Theodore Rooseverlt
Theodore Roosevelt published THE WINNING OF THE WEST in four volumes between 1889-1896. THE WINNING OF THE WEST tells the story of the westward expansion of the United States from the Allegheny Mountains to the Pacific Ocean in the late 18th century. Roosevelt's work is based on government documentation and supported by personal anecdotes of backwoodsmen. He discusses the natural elements of the western frontier as well as the struggles of the backwoodsmen against the Spanish, French and Native Americans, supporting the benefits of aggression in settling the United States.
online text of The Winning of the West

WALL STREET JOURNAL

1889

Dow Jones & Company, begins publication of the "Wall Street Journal", specializing in news relevant to Investors and members of the Financial community. The Journal featured the Jones 'Average', the first of several indexes of stock and bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange.
Wall Street Journal

Politics

Death of President James Garfield

1881

He was shot by a disgruntled office-seeker. Doctors repeatedly poke their fingers into the bullet hole looking for the bullet, causing an infection. Garfield dies on September 19.
James Garfield

Pure food law in Massachusetts

1882

MA pressed for pure food law.
Pure food law and drug law

The Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
The Chinese Exclusion Act

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883

Approved on January 16, 1883, the Pendleton Act established a merit-based system of selecting government officials and supervising their work.
Pendleton Civil Service Act

Grover Cleveland became elected president

1884

He won over James G. Blaine and became the president.
Grover Cleveland

Capture of Apache chieftain Geronimo

1886

After a four-year effort, American troops capture the Apache chieftain Geronimo, a prominent leader of the Bedonkohe Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.
Geronimo

Rev. Mr. Heard's Railroad Case

1887

The case of Rev. W. H. Heard against the Georgia Railroad was heard before the Inter-State Commerce Commission Thursday. J. W. Cromwell and W. C. Martin appeared for the petitioner and J. B. Cumming for the Georgia Railroad. Rev. W. H. Heard testified to the inferior condition of the car, to the presence of whites who smoked, cursed and drank whisky, although a colored lady was a passenger. The railroad did not present any testimony denying this condition of things on that day, but only testimony as to the general rules and custom prevailing. Mr. Martin opened for the petitioner in a statement of the law bearing on the case and the facts as applicable to the law. Mr. Cumming responded for the road in a very plausible speech, signifying a willingness to do what was right, but frankly avowing the purpose of the road to keep up separation as long as possible. Mr. Cromwell closed the argument. The court reserved their decision. The argument of counsel will be printed in full together with the facts in the case, in pamphlet form.
Rev. Mr. Heard's Railroad Case

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

It provides for 160 acres to be given to each Indian family, breaking up the system of communal land holdings. By declaring as surplus land not owned by individuals, the law ultimately reduced the amount of land owned by Native Americans.
Dawes Severalty Act

Interstate Commerce Act

1887

The Interstate Commerce Act is made law. Financier-industrialist J.P. Morgan believes that some order is needed in commerce and he helps enforce the act.
The reason why Commerce Act became a law

North Dakota became the 39th state

1889

South Dakota became the 40th state

1889

Washington became the 42nd state

1889

Idaho became the 43rd state

1890

Wyoming became the 44th state.

1890

Racial segregation in Louisiana

1896

The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson upheld an 1890 Louisiana statute mandating racially segregated but equal railroad cars. The ruling stated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution dealt with political and not social equality. Plessy v. Ferguson gave a broad interpretation of "equal but separate" accommodations with reference to "white and colored people" legitimizing "Jim Crow" practices throughout the South.
Racial segregation of the seating on railroad

Rabun Gap Area

Tallulah Falls Railwroad

1882

On January 27, 1854, The General Assembly of the State of Georgia enacted legislation for the construction of a railway linking the towns of Athens and Clayton. This railway, known as the North Eastern Railroad (Georgia), was chartered in 1856; however the outbreak of the American Civil War delayed construction. The line was chartered on October 17, 1870, and opened between Athens and Lula on September 1, 1871, a distance of 39 miles.In 1881 railroad was sold to the Richmond and Danville Railroad (R&D), a predecessor of the Southern Railway, which connected with the Northeastern at Lula. The R&D began the Clayton extension from Cornelia, 12 miles from Lula. In 1882 it reached Tallulah Falls, 21 miles from Cornelia. The line was projected to pass through Rabun Gap and on to Knoxville, Tennessee, but no work was done. Tallulah Falls was a popular tourist destination and at one time seventeen hotels and boarding houses catered to the trade. On October 24, 1887, the Blue Ridge and Atlantic Railroad (BR&A) was chartered by the State of Georgia, and in early 1888, bought the branch from the R&D.
Railroad at Tallulah Falls

church at pine mountain

1882

It was the fist Methodist church at Pint Mountain.
Reverend S.D. Clements was the pastor at that time.

"Official website-First United Methodist Church of Pine
Mountain":http://www.fumcpinemountain.com/
Church at pine mountain

Bethel Baptist Church

1882

Rev. D. T. Gulley was the first pastor.
Bethel Baptist Church

Taylor's Chapel Baptist church

1885 - 1887

It was constituted during 1885-1887 and still remains.
Taylor's Chapel

charters of small enterprise

1887

The Tallulah Chapter, 68, Royal Arch Masons were chartered.

Technology

Edison's Pearl Street power company

1882

It began to supply electricity for the city.
Edison's Pearl Street power company

hydroelectric power plant

1882

In Appleton, Wisconsin, a hydroelectric power plant begins operation.
The operation of hydroelectric power plant

fountain pen

1884

In the United States an insurance salesman, Lewis E. Waterman, creates a fountain pen that is not supposed to leak.
The invention of fountain pen

Modern Photograph Film

1885

George Eastman created the modern photograph film technology. The technology that the modern camera is based on was created several hundred years ago. Although the ancient ideas were far away from the types of cameras that we know, they were well ahead of their time in relation to the technology and materials that they had at their disposal. It wasn’t until 1885 when George Eastman created the modern photograph film technology that made cameras accessible to the masses.
The invention of modern photograph film

Coca Cola

1886

John Pemberton begins selling his formula (a mixture of cocaine and caffeine) at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia in 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains. Coca Cola no longer contains Cocaine but that is how it got its name.
Changes in the recipe of Coca Cola

First Dishwasher

1886

Josephine Cochrane, a housewife from Shelbyville, Illinois, invents and builds the First Dishwasher. A motor turned the wheel while hot soapy water squirted up from the bottom of the boiler and rained down on the dishes. The company she created is later bought by Kitchenaid (part of Whirlpool).
The invention of first dishwasher

Earmuffs are patented

1887

Earmuffs are patented, Earmuffs had been invented in Maine in 1883, although we don't have a specific date for this enlightenment (enmufflement), the genius involved was the equitable Chester Greenwood of Farmington, and this town still celebrates his skills on December 21st each year. Thankfully earmuffs were patented in March 13th, 1887. Patent number 188,292.
The success of inventing earmuffs

Art

Cleveland Academy of Art

1881

Cleveland Academy of Art incorporated. Western Reserve School of Design for Women established to prepare women for jobs in local industries.
Cleveland Academy of Art

Art Students League established in Cleveland

1882

Cos Cob Art Colony and Tonalism are first modern art societies in United States.
Cos Cob Art Colony

THE SKETCH BOOK

1883

Cleveland Academy of Art publishes the periodical THE SKETCH BOOK, which lasts a little more than a year.
The Sketch Book

A Silver Morning

1886

George Inness
American, 1825-1894
A Silver Morning,painting, 1886
A Silver Morning

A Mexican Vaquero

1890

Frederic Remington
American, 1861-1909
A Mexican Vaquero, oil painting, 1890
A Mexican Vaquero

Garfield Monument is completed.

1890

The Arcade opened; compared with GalleriaVittorio Emanuelle in Milan, Italy. Charles Schweinfurth architect of many of Cleveland’s finest residences, churches, educational buildings since 1890.
Garfield Monument

Food

Food during 1850-1890

1850 - 1890

Compared to passed food and recipes, there was not much of a change. Meals for the middle class still were not so different from the earlier times. The usual happened, breakfast at 8, dinner (the main meal of the day) some time after 12, and some times a light meal before bed.
Though there was some variety in the meals, most recipes were the same. Soup (pea, clam, beef, veal), bread (corn, potato, muffins), meat and fish (roast beef, ham, turkey,duck, halibut), vegetables (spinach, peas, carrots, succotash), dessert (cheesecake, pudding, sugar cakes, but never any chocolate desserts), drinks (coffee, tea, wine, rum).
Same old, same old. America does not seem to have any more new additions to food. Meat and fish with vegetables and bread. Somethings seem to look more extravagant, but really it has just been made to look pretty, there is nothing knew about it.
Food during 1850-1890