Alfred Thayer Mahan's "The Influence of Sea Power" was a great catalyst in the expansion of the United States around the world. Mahan's studies and theories that power would be held in the hands of those with the greatest amount of conquests was very practical, and ended up to be very true. "Sea Power" led to the strengthening of the United States navy, and ultimately the expansion of the United States to such areas as Hawaii, the Philippines, Samoa, Guam, etc. Also, the Frontier was pronounced "closed" after much of it had been previously settled.
White planters in Hawaii desired to be annexed by the United States, but the Hawaiian Queen did not share their desire.
The Spanish were angered after Cuban revolts became violent and extremely unapologetic. The violent protests resulted in deaths, and the infuriated Spanish sent General Valeriano Weyler to take control. Weyler placed Cuba under Martial Law, throwing many people into concentration camps that led to their deaths.
Beginning in the Philippines and ending with the Spanish invasion of Cuba, the Spanish American war was a four month battle for territory. Spain, as well as America, were looking to expand their empires.
Richard Olney, who began as a leading lawyer that revealed that the Interstate Commerce Act could be used by the railroads, was Secretary of State under President Cleveland. During his time as S.S., Olney settled a boundary dispute between the British and the people of Venezuelan (Britain was trying to dominate the Venezuelans and take over). The United States stepped in, stating that the British were violating the terms of the Monroe Doctrine.
China came to a period of turmoil when Christianity and "spheres of influence" began to overpower the cultural ways of the Chinese. "Boxers", those against Christianity and foreign imperialism were completely against the Qing dynasty, who were in charge of the country. Eventually the tension escalated and anti-foreign forces took control of the government as they convinced the "Boxers" to take their anger out on the people that were changing their ways: the foreigners. Their hatred was brought upon not only those who had "spheres of influence" within their country, but also those who had conformed to their ways (Christian Chinese). The emperor eventually announced that all foreigners should be killed. Finally, in 1901, plans for reparations were made to the foreign countries.
Replaced the Teller Amendment and helped to withdraw troops from Cuba after the end of the Spanish American war. This amendment also influenced Cuba's right to negotiate treaties and allowed the United States to have Guantanamo Bay as their Naval Base. **basically leaving Cuba without having to leave Cuba...could get back in if they wanted to
After it was revealed that an alarming amount of money was owed by the Dominican Republic to various nations ($32 million, to be precise), Roosevelt decided that it was only logical to extend the Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt felt that it was in every country's best interest to provide help to those who were in need so that they could be "stable, orderly, and prosperous". Such "chronic wrongdoing or impotence" was said to "require the intervention of a stable country" so that other countries may continue to be prosperous. While the Monroe Doctrine had previously been a way of keeping European countries out of South America, it was now being manipulated in a way that allowed the USA to intervene in the chaos of Latin American countries.
In 1900 Russia traveled across Asia with hopes of taking control of Port Arthur, one of the only ice-free points they could get their hands on. During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia promised to vacate the area, but held out so they could complete the Trans-Siberian railroad. The Japanese felt that the Russians were using this as a strategy to gain power, and in 1904 launched an attack at the Russians. The Japanese beat the Russians in humiliating battles, and eventually won the entire war, though not before they began to run out of men and weapons. In 1905 Tokyo officials approached Roosevelt in secrecy and asked the USA to help them settle the war.
The Great White Fleet (also known as the United States Navy) completed a circumnavigation of the globe from December 1907-February of 1909. Roosevelt wanted to demonstrate the vast power the United States now had in the form of a naval guard. The hulls of the ships were painted a stark white, thus the Great White Fleet.
In 1902, Congress decided to put the ocean-to-ocean canal that would revolutionize travel by boat into Panama, which was then controlled by Colombia. The US government offered Colombia $10 million, plus $250,000 a year if they would allow the canal to be built in Panama. Colombia declined, angering Panamanians. Panama fought for their independence, and with help from America, won their freedom. In 1903 President Roosevelt acknowledged Panama as a free country. The French Canal Company was paid $40 million. Construction then began on the canal in 1904, and ended in 1914. The project ended up costing $400 million dollars.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 to put an end to WWI. Woodrow Wilson and other politicians signed it at Versailles, in Paris, officially ending the war. America also annexed the Philippines this year.