Germany, Italy and Austro-Hungary signs a Defensive pact
Russia, France and Britain forms an alliance to support each other in case of a European war
While on tour through Bosnia Franz Ferdinand was killed by Gavrilo Princip who was a member of the Serbian nationalist group ''The Black Hand''
- Austrians see this as a personal attack on their nation
Serbia does not accept all of Austro-Hungary's demands and therefore Austro-Hungary invades
-Germany promises to support Austro-Hungary
-Russia promises to support Serbia
Austro Hungary says that if Serbia doesn’t give up its independence, they will send in troops and declare a war.
As an allie of Serbia, Russia hears of the ultimatum and Austro-Hungary’s declaration of War, they begin to mobilise their forces
Germany, who is an allie of the Austro-Hungarians, demand that Russia demobilises their forces, or else they will also step into the war. Russia refuses to demobilise.
Promising to support Austro-Hungary Germany declares war on Russia
Believing they cannot fight a war on two fronts Germany puts into action the Schlieffen Plan and invades France through Belgium. The aim was to beat france in 6 weeks than invade Russia
Germany violating Belgium's neutrality angers Britain to declare war
Battle of Mons was a failed attempt by Britain to stop the German advance through Belgium, however it did slow the Germans
The battle of the Marne was an effort by Britain and France to stop the German advance towards Paris. It ended up being a decisive victory for the allies and a crushing blow to the Germans
Germany seeing the Dardanelles as a strategic straight of water to Russia persuades the Ottomans to join their war effort
Britain starts to bombard Ottoman forts on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an effort to clear a passage to the Black Sea
Allied troops land on the shores of Gallipoli in hope of taking the peninsula and knocking out the Ottoman forts
Italy had made a pre war pact France to help the allies and moves its troops in Austro-Hungary
Britain's first major offensive with its irregulars army drafted by Lord Kitchener. It ended up a success however both sides took heavy losses
-First time poison gas was used by Britain
-Britain lost 42,000 men
Lord Kitcheners drafting campaign lead to the lack of men working the factories. Women quickly filled in to keep the war effort going. Even though it was believed that the women could become infertile and turn yellow they didn't mind because the men were much worse off
Gallipoli campaign being a major disaster allies decide to pull out. Fortunately they suffer only 2 casualties during the evacuation
Britain introduces conscription in effort to help the war effort
The Battle of Verdun was the longest battle of the war. It resulted in a draw but it is estimated that there were over one million casualties.The impact that this battle had on France was one of the main reason Britain initiated the Battle of the Somme. It was fought on hilly land between France and Germany. This plan was formulated by General Von Falkenhiyn. He wanted to “bleed France white”. Verdun was a French Fortress and a symbol of power, which is why Germany decided it was the perfect place for an attack. The battle ended in French victory and they recaptured the ground they had lost, including the Fort Douaumont.
British attempt to distract the Germans from the Battle of Verdun. The allies hoped to use a massive amount of troops to overwhelm the Germans and force them into a surrender
Germany starts to attack merchant ships which is against British law
After Germany sinks 7 american merchant ships the United States declares war on Germany. The Allies and Americans push the Germans back away from Paris and into retreat in August. In September, the Allied troops break through the Hindenburg line (the German line of defence on the Western Front).
Britain planned to use her new tanks to support an attack on a quiet stretch of the German hinderburg line in hope of a breakthrough. It ended in a stalemate
-Tanks used for first time on a large scale
Lenin seizes power in Russia and quickly negotiates a peace treaty with Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm the second, the German Emperor, abdicates his throne and on November 10th, Germany becomes a republic.
Internal uprising, mutinies and failure of the Spring Offensive all adds up to Germany loosing the war
Germany is made to take full blame for the war and is loose land, navy/army/airforce limited/banned and are made to pay war reparations