World War I

War and Conflicts

1882 Triple Alliance forms

1882

Germany, Italy and Austro-Hungary signs a Defensive pact

August 31st 1907 Triple Entente forms

August 1907

Russia, France and Britain forms an alliance to support each other in case of a European war

June 28th 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 1914

While on tour through Bosnia Franz Ferdinand was killed by Gavrilo Princip who was a member of the Serbian nationalist group ''The Black Hand''
- Austrians see this as a personal attack on their nation

July 28th 1914 Austro-Hungary declares war on Serbia

July 1914

Serbia does not accept all of Austro-Hungary's demands and therefore Austro-Hungary invades
-Germany promises to support Austro-Hungary
-Russia promises to support Serbia

July 5th Kaiser Wilhelm II promises German support for Austria against Serbia

07/05/1914

July 23rd 1914 Austro-Hungary send Serbia an ultimatum

07/23/1914

Austro Hungary says that if Serbia doesn’t give up its independence, they will send in troops and declare a war.

July 29th 1914 Russia begins mobilising its troops

07/29/1914

As an allie of Serbia, Russia hears of the ultimatum and Austro-Hungary’s declaration of War, they begin to mobilise their forces

July 30th 1914 Germany demands Russia to demobilise

07/30/1914

Germany, who is an allie of the Austro-Hungarians, demand that Russia demobilises their forces, or else they will also step into the war. Russia refuses to demobilise.

August 23rd 1914 Battle of Mons

August 1914

Battle of Mons was a failed attempt by Britain to stop the German advance through Belgium, however it did slow the Germans

August 4th 1914 Britain declares war on Germany

August 1914

Germany violating Belgium's neutrality angers Britain to declare war

August 3rd 1914 Germany declares war on France

August 1914

Believing they cannot fight a war on two fronts Germany puts into action the Schlieffen Plan and invades France through Belgium. The aim was to beat france in 6 weeks than invade Russia

August 1st 1914 Germany declares war on Russia

August 1914

Promising to support Austro-Hungary Germany declares war on Russia

September 5th-12th 1914 Battle of the Marne

September 1914

The battle of the Marne was an effort by Britain and France to stop the German advance towards Paris. It ended up being a decisive victory for the allies and a crushing blow to the Germans

October 29th 1914 The Ottoman Empire joins Germany

October 1914

Germany seeing the Dardanelles as a strategic straight of water to Russia persuades the Ottomans to join their war effort

February 19th 1915 Britain bombards Ottoman forts

February 1915

Britain starts to bombard Ottoman forts on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an effort to clear a passage to the Black Sea

April 25th 1915 Allied troops land in Gallipoli

April 1915

Allied troops land on the shores of Gallipoli in hope of taking the peninsula and knocking out the Ottoman forts

May 23rd 1915 Italy declares war on Austro-Hungary

May 1915

Italy had made a pre war pact France to help the allies and moves its troops in Austro-Hungary

September 25th - October 14th 1916 Battle of Loos

September 1915 - October 1915

Britain's first major offensive with its irregulars army drafted by Lord Kitchener. It ended up a success however both sides took heavy losses
-First time poison gas was used by Britain
-Britain lost 42,000 men

Late 1915 - Early 1916 Due to lack of men british women start work in industry

November 1915 - February 1916

Lord Kitcheners drafting campaign lead to the lack of men working the factories. Women quickly filled in to keep the war effort going. Even though it was believed that the women could become infertile and turn yellow they didn't mind because the men were much worse off

December 19th 1915 Allies start evacuation of Gallipoli

December 1915

Gallipoli campaign being a major disaster allies decide to pull out. Fortunately they suffer only 2 casualties during the evacuation

January 27th 1916 Conscription introduced in Britain

January 1916

Britain introduces conscription in effort to help the war effort

February 21st - December 18th 1916 Battle of Verdun

February 1916 - December 1916

The Battle of Verdun was the longest battle of the war. It resulted in a draw but it is estimated that there were over one million casualties.The impact that this battle had on France was one of the main reason Britain initiated the Battle of the Somme. It was fought on hilly land between France and Germany. This plan was formulated by General Von Falkenhiyn. He wanted to “bleed France white”. Verdun was a French Fortress and a symbol of power, which is why Germany decided it was the perfect place for an attack. The battle ended in French victory and they recaptured the ground they had lost, including the Fort Douaumont.

July 1st - November 18th 1916 Battle of the Somme

July 1916 - November 1916

British attempt to distract the Germans from the Battle of Verdun. The allies hoped to use a massive amount of troops to overwhelm the Germans and force them into a surrender

February 1st 1917 Germany's unrestricted U-Boat attack begins

February 1917

Germany starts to attack merchant ships which is against British law

April 6th 1917 United States declares war on Germany

April 1917

After Germany sinks 7 american merchant ships the United States declares war on Germany. The Allies and Americans push the Germans back away from Paris and into retreat in August. In September, the Allied troops break through the Hindenburg line (the German line of defence on the Western Front).

November 20th - December 8th 1917 Battle of Cambrai

November 1917 - December 1917

Britain planned to use her new tanks to support an attack on a quiet stretch of the German hinderburg line in hope of a breakthrough. It ended in a stalemate
-Tanks used for first time on a large scale

December 5th 1917 Armistice between Germany and Russia signed

December 1917

Lenin seizes power in Russia and quickly negotiates a peace treaty with Germany

November 9th 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II advocates his thrown

09/11/1918

Kaiser Wilhelm the second, the German Emperor, abdicates his throne and on November 10th, Germany becomes a republic.

October 29th 1918 Germany's navy mutinies

October 1918

November 11th 1918 Germany signs armistice

November 1918

Internal uprising, mutinies and failure of the Spring Offensive all adds up to Germany loosing the war

June 28th 1919 The Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany

June 1919

Germany is made to take full blame for the war and is loose land, navy/army/airforce limited/banned and are made to pay war reparations