The Mycenean are the early Greeks that werre located around southern Greece on steep rocky ridges and surrounded by a protective wall more than 20 feet high. The military was greatly fortified and could withstand any attack thrown at them. Kings ruled the people of surrounding villages and farms. Some how around 1500 B.C. they came in contact in war with the Minoan civilization. From the Minoans the Mycenean adopted forms of trade at sea, the adaption of a writing system early Greek language and Minoan designs.
Not after the Trojan War, the Mycenaen civilization began to decline. in 1200 B.C. invaders from far -away lands began to destroy their cities and homes those people were the Dorians. The Dorians spoke an early form of Greek language and may have been realitives to the Greeks during the Bronze Age. The Dorian people were less educated than the Myceneans their trade wasn't good and came to an end. Historians believe the Greeks lost the art of art and writing during this particular age. No records are existing during that time it is a 400 year period. This is the little known history that is known about the Greeks.
As the 25,000 Persian troops advance across the Aegean Sea a great hero risked his life to alert the people of Athens about their arrival. Pheidippides ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens he ran so fast that when he finished giving the message to the Athenians he died from exhaustion.When the Athenians received the information they attacked forcefully with the use of iron weapons and phalanx position which caught the Persians by surprise. Athens became victorious and remained powerful over the next couple of years.
Darius III planned to conquer all of Greece which included all city-states. Persia conquered all the city-states and advanced to Athens. Athens troops destroyed Darius' army and so he decided to send 25,000 men across the Aegean Sea.
After being humiliated greatly Xerxes ( Darius' son) inherits the throne of his father. Xerxes truly despises the Athenians because of what they have doen to his father and creates an army to move forward to Greece. Over 7,000 Greeks are prepared to defend Thermophylae from the Persains, however Sparta decides to defend Thermopylae and alerts other city-states to prepare for battle at home. The Spartans hold down the Persains in 3 days and succeed by sacrificing 300 men.The Athenians navy postioned themselves near the island of Salimis, however the Persain army tried so hard to avoid attacking on the water. The Persains were unsuccessful on atttacking the Athenians because it was nearly impossible for them to navigate around the island.So because of that Athens they become very prosperous
After defeating the Persains Athens decides to creeate an alliance with other city- states in Greece. Athens becomes the leader of all the city- staes and decides to taxes all the rest of the city-staes in the process. With the Delian League being established Athens begins to have great confidence in Greek pride and culture which is considered Athens " Golden Age". The Golden Age wraps up into three categories: Athens becomes the ultimate leaders, they become very wealthy, and they build mini empires.
Great tensions between Sparta and Athens began to heat up and instead of avoiding conflict Sparta pressed on to fight Athens.During the Peloponnesian War started with Athens having a stronger navy while Sparta army wanted Athens to fight on land. Instead, however eventually Spartans begins to march into Athenian territory. Spartan soliders burn Athens food supply and wall, but Athens was safe for a short while becasue of the ships that send Athens food supplies for starving families. During the next years a plague striked Athens and killed one-third of their population and by the year 421 B.C. the two city-states came to a truce. The peace treaty didnt last to long when 415 B.C. Athenians send huge fleets to the island of Sicily (Southern Italy) Athens wanted to destroy the city-state of Spartas closet allies. The war came to end with the Athenian army was too weak to fend off the Spartans any longer and Athens power came to an end.
After the great Peloponnesian War Athens lost all hope and confidence in its government and questioned their values as citizens.A group of Greeks were determined to seek the truth to help the people of Athens during their time of struggles they were called philospohers. Philosophers mean "lovers of wisdom" and group of philosophers were called the Sophists they questioned peoples beliefs on moral ideas and justice. Three great men came from this great age: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates encouraged his students and the people of Athens to examine their morals and think for themselves. Socrates made many enemies for telling people to do so and he was put on trial and filed as guitly for "corrupting the youth," and was sentenced to death. One of Socrates' student Plato was just in his 20s when his teacher was killed his most famous works is the Republic it explained his vison on the perfect govered society since a democracy was'nt working for Athens. In his final years he founded a school called, the Academy in 387 B.C.Finally, one of the Academy's brightest student came and his name was Aristotle. Aristotle founded his own school called the Lyceum. One of Aristotle's well-known students was Alexander the son of King Phillip II.
Macedonia is located up just northern Greece with roughed land and frigid climate. One of their famous kings was Philip II he was an excellent king and tranformed haggard peasants into all powerful professsional army into 16 phalanxes. With that army he used a fast calavary to crush the disorganized Greek city-states. The Athenian government couldn't come up with a disagreement on how to handle Phillip ; so Athens became conquered by the control of Philip's Macedonia.His next plan was to invade Persia, however that came to an end on the night of his daughter's wedding he was stabbed to death by a guardsmen.
Alexander was just twenty when becomming king and decided to carry out his fahther’s plan by leading 35,000 soliders across Anatolia to take on Persia. With that Alexander decided to crushed the Persian Empire defenses and to come face with king, Darius III a battle between 50,000 and 75,000 men. Alexandered ordered the army to crush Darius’ army and his great victory gained him control over Anatolia.Baffled by his defeat Darius tried to come up with a treaty with Alexander the Great, but refuses. With that he conquers the entire army marching into Egypt and is annonced as a hero. He is awarded with the title of pharoah with that he founded the city of Alexandria near the mouth of the Nile River.
In the year of 326 B.C. Alexander and his army reached the Indus Valley. At the Hydaspes River a very powerful Indian army blocked their path. After winning, Alexander's army marched more than 200 miles and fought more than 11 years through blazing hot deserts and sopping wet monsoons. After all that his soliders yearned to return home and Alexander gave in reaching Babylon and Alexander gave orders to built more roads,cities, harbors, to conquer Arabia. Unfortunately, his plans came to an end when he became ill with a fever and died a few days later he was only 32 years of age.