Rome become a republic.
Hannibal invades Italy. Hannibal leads the Carthage army in his famous crossing of the Alps to attack Rome.
Spartacus leads slave uprising
Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. They hope to bring back the republic, but civil war breaks out
The Roman Empire begins as Caesar Augustus becomes the first Roman Emperor
The Colosseum is built. One of the great examples of Roman engineering is finished. It can seat 50,000 spectators
The Hadrian Wall is built. To keep out the barbarians a long wall is built across northern England.
Theodosius I declares Christianity to be the sole religion of the Roman Empire.
The end of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of Ancient Rome. The last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus is defeated by the German Goth Odoacer. This signals the start of the Dark Ages in Europe.
The Byzantine Empire comes to an end as it falls to the Ottoman Empire.