THE FATHER IS BORN!
HIP-HOP CLIVE CAMPBELL, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "DJ COOL HERC" WAS BORN.
KNOWN AS THE FATHER OF HIP-HOP.
BORN IN KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
American DJ from the south Bronx.
Instrumental in the early development of hip-hop in the 80's.
Park Commissioner Robert Moses began building an expressway through the heart of the Bronx. As a result, middle class Italian, German, Irish, and Jewish neighbourhoods disappeared overnight. Families replaced with poor black and hispanic families.
Crime, drug addiction and unemployment were affluent.
Dub was created by Jamaican DJ's in the 60's. Reggae records were significantly manipulated and reshaped, usually by removing vocals from an existing music piece and emphasising the drum and bass parts.
Cliva Campbell would later copy this style using funk and Solo Records of the 1970's.
"Toasting" was done by an MC who kept the crowd entertained and under control.
Clive Campbell migrates to the Bronx from Jamaica at age 12.
At school because of his size he was called 'Herc'.
Apartment complexes were terrorised by a gang called the 'Savage Seven'.
Start of gangs in the Bronx.
They changed their name to the 'Black Spades'.
15,000 apartment complexes built.
Accelerated the middle class leaving
led to loads of derelict buildings to harbour crime and gang activity.
Significance of graffiti to hip-hop culture is tremendous, was the cornerstone of inner-city self expression.
Heavily used by gangs as a way to mark territory and communicate.
Using popular funk and soul records people enjoyed dancing to he would stretch the instrumental break of the song by using two copies of the same record on two turntables, mixing between the two records to extend the break.
Afrika Bambaata became leader of the Black Spades at it's peak and left to start the peaceful Zulu nation and became a DJ.
Park jams and block parties led to less gang activity and it declined.
Derived from special dancers that would specifically dance in the breaks of songs.
Dance battle's started between gangs.
Hires Coke Le Rock and Clark Kent to rhyme over his instrumental breaks during club sets. This was hip-hops first MC team.
They became known as Kool Herc and the Herculoids.
DJ Grand Wizard Theodore accidentally invents the scratch technique where a moving record is moved back and forth on the turntable, which is an essential part of hip-hop DJ'ing.
Roland 808 drum machine invented. Become the most used drum machine in history.
First international hip-hop hit.
Known as one of the greatest MC groups of all time.