The Renaissance began in Italy because of a revival of Greco-Roman texts and the prosperity trade in the Italian city-states (see: Florence). This cultural "rebirth" led to the establishment of individualism, humanism, and the beginning of modernity.
Approx. 1450 - Approx. 1700
As Italian ideas spread north, the Renaissance began to cultivate in Northern territories like modern-day Germany, France, and England. Some key people in the Northern Renaissance include Shakespeare, Thomas Moore, and Cervantes.
War of the Roses
May 22, 1455 - August 22, 1485
The War of the Roses was an English conflict over who had the right to the British throne. It concluded with the victory of Henry VII and the installation of the Tudors onto the throne.
1509 - 1547
Henry VIII married six women. His divorce to Catherine of Aragon, along with his desire for power, led to the creation of the Church of England and his excommunication from the Catholic church.
Approx. 1520 - Approx. 1600
This art movement was the transition period between the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque era art of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation with artists focusing on new ideas and how to express them.
Approx. 1550 - Approx. 1750
An artistic style known for over-ornamentation and gaudy artwork, curved lines, and art that awes the viewer with impressive size and emotional reactions. This led to the emergence of classic ballet and theater as well.
1553 - 1558
Mary Tudor re-established Catholicism in England and showed intolerance towards Protestants.
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I fostered the arts, supported Protestantism, and was one of the most beloved Queens of all time. Dubbed the Virgin Queen and Queen Best, she defeated the Spanish Armada and supported the colonization of the New World by sponsoring Sir Walter Raleigh.
Approx. 1710 - Approx. 1790
Rococo is a French artistic movement that rose during the Enlightenment and focused on soft, dreamy pastels and though it was similar to Baroque, was more ornamental and less formal than its predecessor.
Approx. 1790 - Approx. 1820
Neoclassicism was the artistic movement that came before actual Romanticism. Some notable Neoclassicists are Beethoven, Schubert, Goya, and Jacques Louis David.