During the late medieval period, the Protestant Reformation was a religious reawakening that struck a serious blow at the cultural unity, order, and political power of the Catholic Church. Although Protestantism drew from several different sources, some of the most influential ideas originated with the Catholic priest, monk and professor of theology, Martin Luther (14831546) . In 1517 Luther put forward a proposal for a public academic discussion of the most sacred practices of th Church. His Ninety-- e Catholic Five Theses which challenged the Church’s policy of selling indulgences, as well as the Church’s authority and by extension the Pope’s role as the sole interpreter of scripture corner stone for the Reformation. Thbecame the e Catholic Church interpreted Luther’s defiance as an existential threat and soon Pope Leo X (14751521) demanded that Luther formally renounce his writings and beliefs. When Luther refused the Pope’s demands in 1520, and then again at the 1521 Diet of Wor rebuffed a similar demand from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (15001558), he was excommunicated from the Church. The Church banned Luther’s teachings and writings and the Emperor declared him a heretic. These developments placed Luther’s life in mort ms al danger. In the text below, Luther, writing in German rather than Latin, laid out further challenges to the Church including his own doctrines for the priesthood of believers which further undermined the Catholic Church’s powers over its followers.