Center is Quattrocento, Florence
Concluded 100 Year's war after expelling the English from France. Taxes on land and salt were source of royal income for three centuries
Encouraged economic growth by promoting new industries such as silk weaving
Star Chamber: political weapon to try to prominent nobles. Held in secret with no right of appeal, no juries, and no witnesses.
Dynastic union of the Iberian Peninsula's most powerful royal houses. Completed Reconquista, expelled all Jews from Spain.
King is supreme head of England
Concordat of Bologna: king can nominate all church officials in France (monarch control over Church)