Enlightenment - Group 5

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Microscope Invented

1590 - 1599

First Microscope Created in the Netherlands.

Barometer Invented

1600 - 1604

Barometer (early 1600s, Italian) - measure air pressure

Common Arithmetic Signs Created

1603

Francois Vieta introduces signs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

First Law of Planetary Motion

1605

Kepler discovers first law of planetary motion.

Galileo plots rolling ball speed using time axis.

1608

Galileo plots the speed of a rolling ball on a time axis.

First Primitive Telescope

1608

Telescope (1608, Dutch) A Dutch glass maker construced a primitive telescope. Galileo heard about it and improved on the design.

Galileo's First Telescope

1609

Galileo develops his first telescope

The Starry Messenger Published

1610

Galileo Galilei publishes his The Starry Messenger, (Siderial Messenger, from Siderius Nuncius, 1610). It speaks of Galileo's first observations of the moon, the stars, and jupiter as seen through a telescope. The first publication to utilize telescopic observations.

Thermometer Invented

1611

Thermometer (1611) for chemical and medical studies

The Letters on Sunspots Published

1613

Galileo published his The Letters on Sunspots. Suggests that the sun and heavens alike are corruptible.-Padua, Italy

Copernican System Ruled Heretical

1616

Committee of 11 Church consultants (natural philosophy.s) rule that Copernican system is philosophically, scientifically and theol. unsound (therefore heretical) even after 2 months of ‘lobbying’ by Galileo (system was NOT formally condemned)-Italy

Start of Thirty Years' War

1618

Thirty Years’ War begins-Bohemia

On the Law of War and Peace Published

1625

Grotius publishes On the Law of War and Peace-Dutch Repub(Sweden)

Two Chief World Systems Dialogue Published

1632

Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published-Italy

Galileo Prosecuted by Pope

1633

Pope prosecutes Galileo for promoting sun-centered theory of the solar system-Rome

French Academy Developed

1635

French Academy language 1635-France

Analytical Geometry Introduced

1637

Renee Descartes introduces analytical geometry for engineering.-Netherlands

The Discourse on Method Published

1637

The Discourse on the Method published by René Descartes in 1637. (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences). Descartes tackles philosophical problems and takes on a persona of skepticism to start anew when viewing the world as a whole from a philosophical perspective-Dutch Republic(Sweden)

Two New Sciences Published

1638

Galileo published Two New Sciences, (smuggled out to Amsterdam)-Italy

End of Thirty Years' War

1648

Thirty Years’ War ends-Westphalia

Air Pump Invented

1650 - 1659

Air pump (1650s, Dutch) - to study atmosphere-Sweden

Pendulum Clock Invented

1657

Pendulum clock (1657, Dutch) let scientists more accurately measure time in their experiments-Sweden

Isaac Newton's "miraculous year"

1665 - 1666

Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) “miraculous year” – worked on universal gravitation, calculus (or “fluxions”), and theory of colors-London, England

Journal des Savants published

1665

Journal des savants 1665 by Denis De Sallo-Paris, France

Reflections published

1665

François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections.-Paris, France

French Academy of Science founded

1666

French Academy of Sciences founded in 1666-Paris,France

London Destroyed in Great Fire

1666

Isaac Newton uncovers laws of gravity • London, already stricken by plague, is destroyed in the Great Fire and subsequently rebuilt in more orderly fashion.-London,England

Fables Published

1668 - 1694

Jean de La Fontaine, Fables.-Paris France

Royal Observatory at Greenwich Completed

1675

Completion of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; John Flamsteed (1646-1719) became the first Astronomer Royal; Newton published his “An Hypothesis Explaining the Properties of Light” in the Phil. Trans. of the Roy. Soc.-Greenwich,Greater London, England

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published

1687

Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" -Latin. It speaks of absolute time, Newtons Law of Motion, Planetary Motion, and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. One of the most important works in sciences history.-London, England

Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

1687

Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica-London, England

The Glorious Revolution

1688

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England

Publication of the Daily Courant, London's first daily newspaper.

1702

Publication of the Daily Courant, London's first daily newspaper.

Sir Isaac Newton becomes President of the Royal Society.

1703

Sir Isaac Newton becomes President of the Royal Society.

Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks

1704

Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks; a book discussing light itself, and analyzing its refraction through prisms and lenses.

Pierre Boisguilbert, Dissertation on the nature of wealth, money, and taxes

1704

Pierre Boisguilbert, Dissertation sur la nature des richesses, de l' argent et des tributs (Dissertation on the nature of wealth, money, and taxes)

Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne.

1708

Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne.

Roger Cotes issues a revision of Newton's Principia Mathematica.

1713

Roger Cotes issues a revision of Newton's Principia Mathematica.

Teddington, England

1727

Stephen Hales concludes that plants receive nourishment from the atmosphere, and studies the movement of water within plants.

Death of Sir Issac Newton.

1727

Death of Sir Issac Newton.

Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations

1727

Stephen Hales (1677-1761), showed air takes part in chemical reactions and invented apparatus for investigating gases; Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations

Newton's Principia Mathematica is translated into English by Andrew Motte.

1729

Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica is translated into English by Andrew Motte.

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia

1729 - 1796

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 1729-1796

Frederick II was King in Prussia

1740

Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786)

Building on da Vinci and Galileo's early use of vertical and horizontal axes

1750 - 1760

Building on da Vinci and Galileo's early use of vertical and horizontal axes, mathematician Leonard Euler establishes the modern convention that axes must be perpendicular. 

Johann Sebastian Bach died

1750

Johann Sebastian Bach died(31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750)

Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide, which he calls "fixed air."

1754

Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide, which he calls "fixed air."

Death of Stephen Hales.

1761

Death of Stephen Hales.

Joseph Priestley publishes A Chart of Biography

1765

English chemist Joseph Priestley publishes the first of several timelines that contemporary audiences would recognize as such: A Chart of Biography compares the life spans of 2,000 celebrated men from 1200 BC to AD 1750, using bars set against a linear time axis to denote their life spans. 

Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor

1765 - 1790

Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790

Joseph Priestley publishes The History and Present State of Electricity.

1767

Joseph Priestley publishes The History and Present State of Electricity.

Weimar Classicism Movement

1772 - 1805

Weimar Classicism Movement 1772 until 1805.

Joseph Priestley announces his discoveries in On Different Kinds of Air.

1772

Joseph Priestley announces his discoveries in On Different Kinds of Air.

Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.

1774

Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.

Joseph Priestley prepared oxygen; Pierre Bayen investigated mercuric oxide

1774

Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) prepared dephlogisticated air (oxygen); Pierre Bayen (1725-1798) investigated the properties of calx of mercury (mercuric oxide)

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment by Immanuel Kant

1784

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment 1784 essay Immanuel Kant

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

French Revolution 1789–1799 ( end of enlightenment)

The Age of Reason written by Thomas Paine

1794

The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine,challenges the Bible,Published in three parts in 1794, 1795, and 1807.

James Hutton, Theory of the Earth

1795

James Hutton, Theory of the Earth

The Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) (end of enlightenment)

Death of Joseph Priestley.

1804

Death of Joseph Priestley.