First Microscope Created in the Netherlands.
Barometer (early 1600s, Italian) - measure air pressure
Francois Vieta introduces signs for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Kepler discovers first law of planetary motion.
Galileo plots the speed of a rolling ball on a time axis.
Telescope (1608, Dutch) A Dutch glass maker construced a primitive telescope. Galileo heard about it and improved on the design.
Galileo develops his first telescope
Galileo Galilei publishes his The Starry Messenger, (Siderial Messenger, from Siderius Nuncius, 1610). It speaks of Galileo's first observations of the moon, the stars, and jupiter as seen through a telescope. The first publication to utilize telescopic observations.
Thermometer (1611) for chemical and medical studies
Galileo published his The Letters on Sunspots. Suggests that the sun and heavens alike are corruptible.-Padua, Italy
Committee of 11 Church consultants (natural philosophy.s) rule that Copernican system is philosophically, scientifically and theol. unsound (therefore heretical) even after 2 months of ‘lobbying’ by Galileo (system was NOT formally condemned)-Italy
Thirty Years’ War begins-Bohemia
Grotius publishes On the Law of War and Peace-Dutch Repub(Sweden)
Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published-Italy
Pope prosecutes Galileo for promoting sun-centered theory of the solar system-Rome
French Academy language 1635-France
Renee Descartes introduces analytical geometry for engineering.-Netherlands
The Discourse on the Method published by René Descartes in 1637. (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences). Descartes tackles philosophical problems and takes on a persona of skepticism to start anew when viewing the world as a whole from a philosophical perspective-Dutch Republic(Sweden)
Galileo published Two New Sciences, (smuggled out to Amsterdam)-Italy
Thirty Years’ War ends-Westphalia
Air pump (1650s, Dutch) - to study atmosphere-Sweden
Pendulum clock (1657, Dutch) let scientists more accurately measure time in their experiments-Sweden
Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) “miraculous year” – worked on universal gravitation, calculus (or “fluxions”), and theory of colors-London, England
Journal des savants 1665 by Denis De Sallo-Paris, France
François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections.-Paris, France
French Academy of Sciences founded in 1666-Paris,France
Isaac Newton uncovers laws of gravity • London, already stricken by plague, is destroyed in the Great Fire and subsequently rebuilt in more orderly fashion.-London,England
Jean de La Fontaine, Fables.-Paris France
Completion of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich; John Flamsteed (1646-1719) became the first Astronomer Royal; Newton published his “An Hypothesis Explaining the Properties of Light” in the Phil. Trans. of the Roy. Soc.-Greenwich,Greater London, England
Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" -Latin. It speaks of absolute time, Newtons Law of Motion, Planetary Motion, and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. One of the most important works in sciences history.-London, England
Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica-London, England
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England
Publication of the Daily Courant, London's first daily newspaper.
Sir Isaac Newton becomes President of the Royal Society.
Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks; a book discussing light itself, and analyzing its refraction through prisms and lenses.
Pierre Boisguilbert, Dissertation sur la nature des richesses, de l' argent et des tributs (Dissertation on the nature of wealth, money, and taxes)
Isaac Newton knighted by Queen Anne.
Roger Cotes issues a revision of Newton's Principia Mathematica.
Stephen Hales concludes that plants receive nourishment from the atmosphere, and studies the movement of water within plants.
Death of Sir Issac Newton.
Stephen Hales (1677-1761), showed air takes part in chemical reactions and invented apparatus for investigating gases; Cadwallader Colden, History of the Five Indian Nations
Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica is translated into English by Andrew Motte.
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia 1729-1796
Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786)
Building on da Vinci and Galileo's early use of vertical and horizontal axes, mathematician Leonard Euler establishes the modern convention that axes must be perpendicular.
Johann Sebastian Bach died(31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750)
Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide, which he calls "fixed air."
Death of Stephen Hales.
English chemist Joseph Priestley publishes the first of several timelines that contemporary audiences would recognize as such: A Chart of Biography compares the life spans of 2,000 celebrated men from 1200 BC to AD 1750, using bars set against a linear time axis to denote their life spans.
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790
Joseph Priestley publishes The History and Present State of Electricity.
Weimar Classicism Movement 1772 until 1805.
Joseph Priestley announces his discoveries in On Different Kinds of Air.
Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) prepared dephlogisticated air (oxygen); Pierre Bayen (1725-1798) investigated the properties of calx of mercury (mercuric oxide)
Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment 1784 essay Immanuel Kant
French Revolution 1789–1799 ( end of enlightenment)
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine,challenges the Bible,Published in three parts in 1794, 1795, and 1807.
James Hutton, Theory of the Earth
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) (end of enlightenment)
Death of Joseph Priestley.