tries and fails to force coalition government of nationalists and Communists
Nuclear Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
surrender of Japan (V-J Day); beginning of the nuclear age.
President Harry S. Truman meets with Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee; tells Stalin of atomic bomb; gives Japan last warning to surrender; Germany (and Austria) divided into 4 zones of occupation
Surrender of Germany
United Nations Charter signed
America becomes a founding member and has veto power on the Security Council along with Great Britain, France, China and the Soviet Union.
United Nations Established
San Francisco Conference on International Organization. Security Council veto powers established.
Joseph Stalin and Churchill; agreement on division of Eastern Europe
the U.S. forgives $2.8 billion in French debts (mostly World War I loans), and gives an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In turn France allows American films in its cinemas.
End of Isloationism
Stalin Declares WWIII
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
includes US and 22 nations who agree to eliminate trade barriers of all kinds on industrial and agricultural goods. Replaced in 1995 by World Trade Organization
National Security Act
gives military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to halt spread of Communism
imposed on June 24 by the Soviet Union, blocking traffic into western sectors of Berlin, followed by Operation Vittles, America airlifted massive amounts of food, fuel and supplies into city. Soviet blockade lifted on May 12, 1949.
1948 - 1951
U.S. gives out $11 billion to rebuild and modernize Western European economies. Increased trade between Europe and the America; no repayment asked for.
Dean Acheson as Secretary of State
1949 - 1953
Mao Comes to Power
America and eleven other nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty, creating NATO, a military alliance with the purpose of countering the Soviet Union and its allies.
Soviets get Nukes
Chinese forces enter North Korea
roll back UN-US-South Korean forces to below 38th parallel
1950 - 1953
U.S. sends in troops to stop North Korean invasion; U.N. votes support; (Soviet Union boycotted U.N. and did not veto.) U.S. forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict.
united America, Australia and New Zealand in a defensive regional pact
Truman Fires MacArthur
President Truman fires General Douglas MacArthur as blame game escalates regarding Korean war stalemate
Eisenhower Defeats Isolationists
defeats isolationist element in GOP; denounces stalemate in Korea and promises to go there himself; elected president in landslide
Eisenhower threatens use of nuclear weapons in Korean War; China agrees to negotiate; armistice reached (it is till in effect)
U.S., and U.K. governments support shah's coup against Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq
Central Treaty Organization (or CENTO) initiated by John Foster Dulles, members were Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey, U.S. aid.
Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes Operation PBSUCCESS, a program of "psychological warfare and political action" against anti-U.S. regime; Guatemalan military overthrows Carlos Castillo Armas.government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán
SEATO alliance in Southeast Asia. South Vietnam not a signatory
Warsaw Pact Created
Federal Aid Highway Act
gives the president authority to determine the necessity to assist any nation requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism, applied in Lebanon the following year.
Americans embarrassed when Soviets launch Sputnik, the first space satellite and leapfrog America in high technology.
U.S. foreign aid appropriation
$3.2 billion for military and economic aid; lending authority of the Export-Import Bank raised to $7 billion; U.S. admits 32,000 Hungarian refugees from 1956 revolt
Castro comes to power
Fidel Castro comes to power. first of 1 million Cuban exiles go to U.S., concentrating in Miami, Florida
Act of Bogotá
makes social reform a prior condition for American economic aid
trade embargo on cuba
Cuba seizes $1.5 billion of American properties; America imposes complete trade embargo (except food, medicine) continues in effect in 2012
U-2 shot down
Nikita Khrushchev cancels summit conference with Eisenhower after U.S. U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union
Alliance for Progress
inter-regional agreement funded by America to counter the growing regional appeal of the Cuban Revolution
Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA-trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba and were defeated at the Bay of Pigs; captured and ransomed by President Kennedy
Soviets give East Germany control over East Berlin; in August the Berlin Wall is built to stem wave of refugees escaping to the Western side. Kennedy proclaims "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a citizen of Berlin") to cheering West Berliners.
Peace Corps Founded
President John F. Kennedy launches Space Race, promising Americans on the Moon; they landed July 20, 1969
Cuban Missile Crisis
John F. Kennedy on October 22 announces that there exist Soviet missiles in Cuba and demanded their removal while imposing an air sea blockade. Soviet missiles are withdrawn on condition that America will not invade Cuba.
Organization of American States
excludes Cuba, sets up trade embargo; dropped in 1975
Partial Test Ban Treaty
U.S. and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear tests in space, in the atmosphere or underwater. Underground tests permitted; signed by 100 nations, excluding France and the People's Republic of China.
Peak of Vietnam War
1963 - 1969
Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gives President Lyndon B. Johnson Congressional approval to act in Vietnam; repealed in 1970.
Intervention in Dominican Republic.
in Vietnam causes political crisis at home
1969 - 1977
Richard Nixon as president and Henry Kissinger as his National Security Advisor; Kissinger serves as Secretary of State 1973-77
Kent State Shootings
End of Gold Standard
First Budget Deficit
Nixon in Moscow opens era of détente with Soviet Union; SALT I
Nixon in Beijing
Nixon in Beijing opens era of détente with China
1st Trade Deficit
Oil Spike x4
Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords end the American war in Vietnam; POW's returned
Yom Yippor War
India gets Nukes
Fall of Saigon
North Vietnam invades
North Vietnam invades and conquers South Vietnam; over 1 million refugees eventually come to America
Camp David Accords
brokered by President Jimmy Carter, saw Egypt's president Anwar Al Sadat and Israel's Menachem Begin come to terms, leading to their historic peace treaty in 1979
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Vote to Return Panama Canal
1979 - 1990
America supports the Contras fighting against the pro-Communist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
détente has failed
After Afghanistan, President Carter agrees détente has failed; leads worldwide boycott of Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics
Iran becomes an Islamic republic
after the overthrow of American-backed shah; militants seize 63 American diplomats for 444 days during the Iran hostage crisis; America seizes $12 billion in Iranian assets; American rescue effort fails; hostages and assets are freed on January 20, 1981.
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
1979 - 1989
The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; America works with Pakistan and Saudi Arabia in funding, training, and arming Muslim mujahideen insurgency against Soviet occupation.
Taiwan Relations Act
The U.S. switches diplomatic recognition from the Republic of China (Taiwan) to the People's Republic of China and passes the Taiwan Relations Act.
1980 - 1988
America officially neutral in war between Iraq and Iran; America flags oil tankers to protect flow of oil in Persian Gulf, and sells arms and weaponry to both sides of the conflict.
125,000 Cuban refugees arrive in America
Iran Hostages Released
President Ronald Reagan escalates Cold War with heavy new military spending and research in new weapons; forward strategy for Navy;
Marine Barracks Bombing- Beirut
U.S. invades Grenada
in response to a coup d’état by Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard on the Caribbean island.
Acknowledgement of Soviet economic problems
U.S suspends ANZUS
The U.S suspends its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand after David Lange's Labour government bans nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered warships.
White House officials sell weapons to Iran and give the profits to Contras; President Reagan embarrassed
Reagan's "Tear down this wall"
Fall of Berlin Wall
End of Eastern Bloc; fall of Berlin Wall; all East European satellites break away from Moscow
Invasion of Panama
America invades to oust Manuel Noriega
Collapse of Soviet Union
The Soviet Union is dissolved; Mikhail Gorbachev resigns
America leads a U.N.-authorized coalition to repel an Iraqi invasion out of neighboring Kuwait.
1991 - 2003
America and Great Britain maintain no-fly-zones in the north and south of Iraq with periodic bombings.
1991 - 1993
held by America and Russia to limit nuclear weapons
Vietnam Syndrome Kicked
Use of precision weapons in desert storm restores american confidence following an overwhelming military victory.
The US and NATO bomb the FR Yugoslavia
Ivasion of Afghanistan
U.S. and NATO forces invade Afghanistan and overthrow the Taliban.
September 11 terrorist attacks
orchestrated by Al-Qaeda terrorist network, occur on American soil.
Invasion of Iraq
U.S.-led coalition invades Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein; troops remain to fight insurgency against the U.N.-approved elected government.
1945 - 1953
1953 - 1961
1961 - 1963
1963 - 1969
1969 - 1974
1974 - 1977
1977 - 1981
1981 - 1989
H. W. Bush
1989 - 1993
1993 - 2001
2001 - 2009
1945 - 1955
Foreign Policy based on consensus and zeal to shape global affairs
1945 - 1953
Liquidity of Cash
1945 - 1953
1947 - 1989
an era of high tension and hostility—but no major "hot" war—between the U.S. and its allies (Western Europe, Canada, Japan, etc.) and the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
Civil Rights Movement
1960 - 1965
1969 - 1977
Foreign policy requiring less money; Public distrust of Govt.