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Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan. (pron. tie-PING)
Ottoman sultan (r. 1789–1807) who attempted significant reforms of his empire, including the implementation of new military and administrative structures. (pron. seh-LEEM)
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat” means “reorganization.”
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868.
Perry was a U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world.
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.