The Shift from Representative Government to Responsible Government

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Representative to Responsible Government

1830 - 1855

The need for change

The need for change

1830 - 1835

Many people in BNA were unhappy because the five government in BNA weren’t really democratic. They didn’t have fair power of people.

Monarch who was a Queen was at the top. The people couldn’t have chance to vote or choose the Queen. The Queen had to control the BNA but she was from England so she didn’t care about BNA.

There was a Governor under the Queen. They were appointed by Britain to run the Colony for Britain’s best interest, not for the people.

Lieutenant and Executive Councils were under the Governor. They appointed people usually the elite. They could advise to the Governor.

There was Legislative Assembly under the Councils. They were chosen by the people but they had no real power.

Voter was at the last. It wasn’t fair because people who is Black colonists and First Nations couldn’t have chance to vote.

The Impact of Joseph Howe

The Impact of Joseph Howe

1835 - 1837

Joseph Howe was one of the most famous politicians of the mid-1800s. BNA started to resent all the power the Elite had. They thought it was unfair and wanted change.
He was a reformer from Nova Scotia. He pushed for changes, actually he was attacking the government.

Joseph Howe spoke for six hours about how the power of the elite was unfair in his main day of trial. He was a good speaker. He became a hero and elected to the assembly.

The Rebellions in Lower and Upper Canada

The Rebellions in Lower and Upper Canada

1837 - 1838

The Rebellion in Lower Canada started the rebellions in 1837. For the first rebellions, the government heard it and arrested them. By the end of the year, the British troops had easily defeated the Patriot’s rebels because Patriots had few weapons. In the end, many Patriots were jailed.

William Lyon Mackenzie heard that British soldiers were busy fighting in Lower Canada and could not defend Upper Canada, he decided to help them. The Militia easily defeated the rebels in just a few days because again the rebels had no military and few weapons. Most of them were released and some arrested.

Lord Durham's Report

Lord Durham's Report

1838 - 1847

After the Rebellions, the British government sent a man called Lord Durham to investigate the situation and suggest what to do.

The Main Points of the Durham Report is that join the two colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada into one colony called Province of Canada and the other one is that give the Province of Canada responsible government.

Responsible Government in Achieved in Nova Scotia

Responsible Government in Achieved in Nova Scotia

1847 - 1848

Nova Scotia had the first responsible government in BNA. Ever since Joseph Howe had been elected to the Assembly. He create a strong Reform Party in the colony.
James Boyle Uniacke was the leader of the Reform Party at the time. He was leader of the Party that won the elections.

Responsible Government in Province of Canada

Responsible Government in Province of Canada

1848 - 1851

Things didn't go very well because Canada East and West had so many differences of opinion about how to run a government. Finally in 1849, Loius-hipployte LaFontanine from Canada East and Robert Baldwin from Canada West, they made responsible government posible.

Responsible Government in Prince Edward Island

Responsible Government in Prince Edward Island

1851 - 1854

Gerge coles and Edward Whelan worked hard for reform in their colony. They asked to the member of the Assembly for responsible government but were refused. PEI achieved responsible government in 1851. George Coles who is farmer's son became the colony's first premier.

Responsible Government in New Brunswick

Responsible Government in New Brunswick

1854 - 1855

There was issues for people was the question of who would control how the income from timberlands would be spent. For the most part, the elite and other people had the same opinion about the issue. Assembly solved the issue before the colony got responsible government. Charles Fisher was the first premier in new Brunswick in 1854.

Responsible Government in Newfoundland

Responsible Government in Newfoundland

1855 - 1856

There was a big difference in opinions between the English merchants and the men who were elected to the assembly. The responsible government in Newfoundland became strongest when Roman Catholic and Methodists politicians decided to join together to fight for reform. The Reform Party was led by Philip F and won the first election. The first responsible government was in 1855.