4th Block Greece and Rome Review Timeline

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Golden Age of Athens

Pericles rules Athens.

461 BC - 429 BC

Who was involved? : Pericles, the people of Athens and its wealth being.

What happened? : Pericles had three goals: (1) to strengthen Athenian democracy, (2) to hold and strengthen the empire, and (3) to glorify Athens. After the defeat of Persians, Athens helped organize the Delian league. In time Athens took over leadership of the league and dominated all the city states in int. Pericles used the money from the league’s treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean. Pericles also used money from the Delian League to beautify Athens. Without the league’s approval, he persuaded the Athenian assembly to vote huge sums of the league’s money to buy gold, ivory, and marble.

Why this event matters? : This even matters because it helped the city of Athens grow wealthier, and more beautiful.

How this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events? : Most empires wanted to conquer Athens since it was a wealthy city.

Pericles rules Athens.

461 BC - 429 BC

Who was involved? : Pericles, the people of Athens and its wealth being.

What happened? : Pericles had three goals: (1) to strengthen Athenian democracy, (2) to hold and strengthen the empire, and (3) to glorify Athens. After the defeat of Persians, Athens helped organize the Delian league. In time Athens took over leadership of the league and dominated all the city states in int. Pericles used the money from the league’s treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean. Pericles also used money from the Delian League to beautify Athens. Without the league’s approval, he persuaded the Athenian assembly to vote huge sums of the league’s money to buy gold, ivory, and marble.

Why this event matters? : This even matters because it helped the city of Athens grow wealthier, and more beautiful.

How this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events? : Most empires wanted to conquer Athens since it was a wealthy city.

Greek Wars

Alexander the Great

Pythagoras and Euclid Change Math and Physics

495 BC

a) Pythagoras and Euclid Change Math and Physics
b) 495 BC.
c) Pythagoras and Euclid
d) Euclid is known as a highly regarded mathematician. Pythagoras creates the Pythagorean Theorem for triangles.
e) It is significant to math and physics
f) It is still used today as the basis of math and physics

Philip Invades Greece

359 B.C.E. - 338 B.C.E.

• In 359 B.C Philip the second become king. In 338 B.C. Philip invades Greece.
• Athenian warns the Greeks about Philip attack.
• Why this happen is because he dream of conquering Greece.
• Philip used heavy phalanx formation to break the enemy line. After he used his tactic against his opponent, Philip invades Greece.
• This end Greek independence.
• It start for Macedonia increase of it military and economic power

Alexander Conquers Persia

334 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.

a) Alexander Conquers Persia
b) 334 B.C.E.
c) Alexander and 35,000 soldiers
d) Alexander’s army and Persia’s army fought at the Granicus River. Alexander won and the Persian king, Darius III sent an army of 50,000-75,000 soldiers to defeat Alexander. Alexander ends up winning the battle giving him control of Anatolia. Darius tried for a peace settlement but Alexander rejected and took over Egypt. The two men once again met at Gaugamela and Alexander the Great prevailed destroying the Persian Empire.
e) This signifies the start of Alexander’s march to expand his empire.
f) When Alexander died three of his generals fought for power creating three new empires.

Alexander Arrives in India

326 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.

a) Alexander arrives in India
b) 326 B.C.E.
c) Alexander and his army
d) Alexander and his army reached the Indus Valley. The Indian army tried to block him but once again Alexander was victorious. They marched 200miles more and Alexander finally agreed to turn back.
e) It was the end of Alexander’s great conquest.
f) It led to Alexander returning to Babylon and then his death a few days later.

Roman Republic

Taquin the Proud

509 B.C.

Who was involved: The Romans
What happen: The Romans decided they didn’t want to be ruled by a king anymore so they decided to become a republic
Why this matters: Because people were granted voting rights but only free-born male citizens
Importance: they had no more kings to rule Rome

Twelve Tables

451 B.C.

Who was involved: Plebeians
What happen: Wrote a code of laws
Why this matters: Became the basis for Roman law
Importance: established that all free citizens

Punic War

264 b.c. - 146 b.c.

Who Was Involved: The Romans and Hannibal’s Forces

What happened: Romans attacked Carthage and battled against Hannibal’s Army. The Romans won the war

Why this event matters: it gave Rome power over the western Mediterranean

How this affects us: Rome took over the whole western Mediterranean

Julius Caesar becomes dictator for life

100 b.c. - 44 b.c.

what happened: Julius Caesar becomes dictator for life

Who Was Involved: Julius ceasar

how this effects the future: We still learn about it

Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out

44 BC

a) Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out
b) March 15, 44 BC
c) Theatre of Pompey, and many any nobles and senators
d) Theatre of Pompey Assassinated Caesar
e) After his death, civil war broke out again and the left of the Roman Republic was destroyed
f) Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus took control of Rome and ruled for ten years. But their alliance ended in jealousy and violence

Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out

44 BC

a) Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out
b) March 15, 44 BC
c) Theatre of Pompey, and many any nobles and senators
d) Theatre of Pompey Assassinated Caesar
e) After his death, civil war broke out again and the left of the Roman Republic was destroyed
f) Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus took control of Rome and ruled for ten years. But their alliance ended in jealousy and violence

Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out

44 BC

a) Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out
b) March 15, 44 BC
c) Theatre of Pompey, and many any nobles and senators
d) Theatre of Pompey Assassinated Caesar
e) After his death, civil war broke out again and the left of the Roman Republic was destroyed
f) Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus took control of Rome and ruled for ten years. But their alliance ended in jealousy and violence

The Second Triumvirate was established between Octavian and Marc Antony

43 BC - 31 BC

a) The Second Triumvirate established between Octavian and Marc Antony
b) 43 - 31 BC
c) Octavian (Augustus) along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus
d) The Second Triumvirate was established
e) They took control of Rome and ruled for ten years
f) Octavian defeated Antony and Lepidus and became the first emperor of Rome

Pax Romana

27 B.C - 180 A.D

C. Who was involved- Augustus Caesar
D. Pax Romana – Period of Roman peace, Also the era when the ruler Augustus ruled and the empire was at peace..
E. This event matter because it was a great peace of the Roman empire. The success of the empire was a great influence on history.
F. Pax Romana influenced the citizens, of the Roman government, to keep Pax Romana going even after Augustus’ death. Augustus government had so much stability that the Pax Romana kept going for almost 200 years after his death.

Pax Romana

27 B.C - 180 A.D

Who was involved- Augustus Caesar
Pax Romana – Period of Roman peace, Also the era when the ruler Augustus ruled and the empire was at peace..
This event matter because it was a great peace of the Roman empire. The success of the empire was a great influence on history.
Pax Romana influenced the citizens, of the Roman government, to keep Pax Romana going even after Augustus’ death. Augustus government had so much stability that the Pax Romana kept going for almost 200 years after his death

Pax Romana

Alexandria is built

300 B.C.

Alexandria is built
• 300 B.C.
• Alexander help built many Alexandra
• When Alexander’s ambition built Alexandra
• Foremost built city was made called Alexandra.
• Alexandra helps put science, technology and art to it fullest.
• Alexandra is part of history and example of Alexader

Battle of Actium

31 B.C

a. Battle of Actium
b. 31 B.C
c. Octavian, mark antony, and Cleopatria
d. Civil war erupted and Octavian wins the war.
e. Starts an empire.
f. it impacted the future because mark antony killed himself.

Octavian becomes the first emperor

27 B.C - 14 A.D.

a. Octavian becomes the first emperor, Augustus
b. 27 B.C.
c. Julius Caesar, Octavian, Mark Antony
d. Julius Caesar was assonated and made Octavian emperor.
e. He will rule the Roman Empire
f. This event put the empire in a 200 year period of peace

Mount Vesuvius erupts

79 A.D

a. Mount Vesuvius erupts
b. 79 A.D.
c. residents in Pompeii
d. Mount Vesuvius erupted, covering Pompeii and killing 2,000 residents
e. It preserved many buildings and works of art
f. Art and buildings were preserved for the future

Colosseum is opened

80 A.D - 404 A.D

The Romans built it for Christians, Gladiators, boats and even animals The coliseum was built for entertainment that included Christians to getting crucified, eaten by animals, gladiators fighting and mock battles. Gladiators either fought with each other or with the animals till death. During the Pax Romana the crucified Christians and let the animals eat them. They called the entertainment. Everyone wanted to go there. It was very important to the government and culture back then they worshiped going there. This impacted Rome a lot back then it was high tech in the age it caused other countries to build them, and it impacted us because it is still up and It is how we build our present day Dome’s.

Rise of Christianity

Roman Emperors

Augustus

27 B.C. - 180 A.D.

• The use of concrete for structures first emperor of Rome
• Aqueducts to carry water to the city
• Roads/highways to make travel easy
• Made peace in Rome

Nero

54 A.D. - 68 A.D.

• Good administrator but vicious
• Murdered many people
• Persecuted Christians

Trajan

98 A.D. - 117 A.D.

• Empire reached its greatest extent
• Undertook vast building program
• Enlarged social welfare
• Considered to be a good emperor

marcus aurelius

161 AD - 180 AD

• Hadrian, Nero, and Trajan.
• Brought empire to height of economic property
• He defeated invaders
• He also wrote philosophy

Fall of Roman Empire

Military Problems

370 A.D.

• the roman soldiers were not loyal enough to protect the empire
• The western side of the empire was sacked by barbarians and everybody had to move to the eastern side and the military lost all of their loyal soldiers because everybody was just fighting for money and when they were put up against bigger militaries almost all of them would turn and run.
• Rome will be left in ruins and Constantinople will be later modern day Istanbul in modern day turkey. The empire would be almost undefended from other invaders.

Byzantine Empire

Trajan

• Empire reached its greatest extent
• Undertook vast building program
• Enlarged social welfare
• Considered to be a good emperor