2nd Block Greece and Rome Review Timeline

For review for 2nd block


Golden Age of Athens

Greek Wars

Sparta puts down the Messenian revolt

725 B.C.

The Spartan’s were outnumbered 3 to 1 by the Messenians. The Messenians were slaves and they revolted because they didn’t want to work the land and loose had their work to the government. This matter because after this they make Sparta a city-state. This impacted the future because it became one of the city-states and the Spartans then saw that they need to get stronger as a whole.

Pheidippides Brings News

490 BC - 479 BC

• War took place during 490-479 BC
• The Persians lost over 6000 men in the military
• After winning a war it’s a tradition that the army leaders choose a young army man to run back to Athens chanting and the rest of the army would follow after a little while. In this war they chose Pheidippies. He ran 26 miles to Athens screaming, “Rejoice, we conquer.” Right after he made it and did his chanted he fell down and died.

Persian Wars

490 B.C

• Persia conquered the Greek area of Ionia, who revolts (Athens assists)
• Persia ( the last Mesopotamian civilization) is the major world power
• “Battles of Marathon “ (26 mile run to report victory )
• Many battles
• 1st and 2nd invasions of Persia (10yrs apart )
• Greeks victorious
• Greek culture / democracy grows
• The people who shaped ancient Greece today are survivors of Persia Wars
• All the Greek city0states felt a new sense of confidence and freedom
• Athens began to use its power to control the other league members
• The prestige of victory over the Persians and the wealth of the Athenians empire set the stage for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens. The city was entering its belief golden age

Delian League

470 BC

Started around the 470's
• The Greek city-states that were part of an alliance were called the Delian League.
• After the alliance they stopped attacking threats from the surrounding territories of Greece.
• After defeating the Persians, Athens helped build the Delian League.
• Pericles put money into the Delian League so they could have a strong navy to protect them and also do trade with other countries.
• Pericles also used money to change and make Athens a little more appealing. They bribed the people to buy marble, gold, and ivory. Also they paid the workers who made the city more beautiful such as the artists, archictures, and anyone who made the materials they needed.

Peloponnesian War

430 B.C

• 2 key Greek city-states : Athens vs. Sparta
o Athens : democracy, value educations, art , culture
o Sparta: military states, value control, large helot (slave) population with revolt potential
• Sparta victorious
• Democracy declines and disunity among city-states weakens Greece against future attacks

• Sparta peace did not last them 415 B.C the Athenians sent a huge fleet carrying more than 20,000 soldier to the island of Sicily
• 404 B.C the Athenians and their allies surrendered.
• Athens had lost its empire ,power, and wealth

End of Classic Greece

336 B.C.

All the wars lead up to the End of Classic Greece. The wars weakened the Greek city-states. The Peloponnesian war did the most damage to weakening the City-states. Alexander the Great took over and then a new empire started called Henenism. This impacted the future because it was the start of a new empire and the fall of an old one.

Alexander the Great

Phythagoras and Euclid change math and phycics

1100 B.C.

Who was involved: the main ones were Phythagoras and Euclid
What happenned: Discovered the pythagorean theorem
Why this matters: Helped discovered something that we might not have discovered still today
How it impacted the future: We still are taught this information today

Philip Invades Greece

338 B.C.

Who was involved: Athens-thebes/Macedonians
What happenned: Philips milatary defeated the Greeks
Why this matters: Ended Greek independince
How it impacted the future: Led to succesion of foreign powers

Alexander Conquers Persia

334 B.C.

Who was involved: Alexander's and Persian Army
What happenned: Alexander's Army defeated and conquered Persia
Why this matters:gave Alexander control over Arotolia
How it impacted the future: alexander was offered all of the land west of the euphrates

Alexandria is built

331 B.C.

Who was involved: The hellenistic culture was involved
What happenned: Alexendria became the foremost center of commerce and the Hellenistic civilizaion
Why this matters: It has many masters of ancient literature
How it impacted the future: Started the first library and we still have libraries today

Alexander arrives in India

326 B.C.

Who was involved: Alexander's and Indian Army
What happenned: Alexander won the bettle at the Indus Valley
Why this matters: Gave them a reason to finally return home
How it impacted the future: Led to macedonian generals fighting for the empire

Roman Republic

Taquin the Proud is overthrown

600 B.C. - 509 B.C.

This event involved the City of Rome, the citizen’s only males, and King Taquin.

A republic government was made for citizens to vote on their leaders but only male citizens.

This event matters to the king and the citizens because the king doesn’t have the right to rule unless the citizens vote for him.

In the future, the citizens of Rome have a better chance to vote for a king that they like instead of a emperor who doesn’t do anything.

Roman Social Classes

509 b.c. - 204 b.c.

The Roman Social Classe was sperated into mainly 3 diffrent groups. The 1st is the Patricians which were rich land owners or nobles they were the only classe that could run for senate. The 2nd would be the Plebians which were artisans, traders, or normal farm wokers they could votebut could not run for senate but did have the "Twelve Tables" protecting there rights so the Patricians couldnt bully them. Lastly the the 3rd classe was the slaves which made up 1/3 of the population.

The Table Table are written

451 b.c

The Plebeians forced the creation of the wirrten law code. A group of ten officials began writing down Rome`s laws. the laws were carved into twelve tabletsor tables...hints the the twelve tables.the laws established the idea that all citizens had protection under the law. the laws were the basis for later roman laws

Punic Wars

264 b.c. - 146 b.c.

The Punic wars was a campain for The Roman Empire to rule over the whole Mediterranean.The countries involved was Macedonia, Gaul, Carthage and other civilizations along the Mediterranean Sea. Rome had a eye for more land and even more power, there main enemy was the country in N.Africa which where the Carthag. After almost 130yrs of war they are able to destroy the Carthage and take control of the whole Mediterranean. This is important because this is when the Roman Empires Republic goverment falls apart and now the Empire is to large for a republic. This now what the future holds is either good or bad emperor's for Empire.

caesar is killed and civil war breaks out

60 b.c. - 43 b.c.

caesar 18 year old nephew,octavian,and mark anthony joined together to crush the assassins,and formed a powerful politician named lepidus.After caesar`s death, a civil war broke out. they destroyed what was left of the roman empire.they took control of roman for ten years.it caused jealousy and violence and the alliance ended.

Julius Caesar becomes dictator for life.

46 B.C.

The citizens of Rome and the senate was involved and made Caesar dictator for life because of his victories in the war.

Dictator for life really means that the citizens trust Julius Caesar as there King of Rome and should rule everything in the country.

This event really matters because it shows how he earned success in order to claim his position as dictator by the citizens.

This event impacted Caesar to his death. Since dictator for life means a lot of power, the senate thought that he holds way too much and so the senate set up a plan to assissinate Caesar to his death.

Theodora helps put down Nika Rebellion


In 532, two fan groups sparked citywide riots which were called - Nika Rebellion. These riots were formed because two cities felt that the government officials had been too severe in putting down a pack of hippodrome fans. They also demanded to overthrow the Justinian. After, Belisarius broke in with his troops and slaughtered about 30,000 rebels. During that event Justinian had considered fleeing but his wife Theodora convinced him to stay. This event was an enormous impact because

Pax Romana

Pax Romana

27 B.C.E - 180 A.D

Event title: Battle of Actium
Event date: 31 B.C.E
Who was involved: Octavian, Mark Antony, Cleopatra
What Happened: I naval battle between Antony and Octavian
Why this event matters: It made Octavian sole ruler of Rome
How did this event impact the future: It caused Mark Anthony and Cleopatra to commit suicide.

Event title: Pax Romana
Event date: 27 B.C.E- 180 A.D
Who was involved: Augustus, Roman Empire, 200 years of emperors
What Happened: Rome was at peace
Why this event matters: It lasted for over 200 years even after his death
How did this event impact the future: Rome was in a lot of wars before that, so them being at peace was significant

Event title: Octavian
Event date: 27 B.C.E
Who was involved: Octavian
What Happened: Octavian became the first emperor. He changes his name to Augustus.
Why this event matters: He became leader after Julius Caesar
How did this event impact the future: He restores some aspects of the republic and also set up civil service

Event title: Colosseum

Event date: A.D 80
Who was involved: The emperor Vespasian, and his two sons Titus and Domitian
What Happened: It was constructed
Why this event matters: For centuries after its opening spectators enjoyed going
How did this event impact the future: It stand s today and influenced today’s entertainment

Event Title: Mount Vesvius
Event Date: A.D 79
Who was involved- Roman
What happened-Mount vesuvius erupted covering Pomerii in a thick of ash and killingabout 2,000 residents
Why this event matter-It killed a lot of residents and architrcture
How did it impact the future: We lost the erupted

Rise of Christianity

jesus begins his ministry

6 b.c.

A.)Event title: Jesus begins his ministry

• B.) Event date: 4 to 6 b.c.
• C.) Who was involved: Jesus’ disciples, Jesus, Jews
• D.) At the age of 30, Jesus started his own public ministry. For 3 years he taught, preached, did good works, and performed miracles. His teachings contained ideas from the Ten Commandments and Jewish traditions. He also taught that God would end wickedness in the world, and that after you died you would go to eternal kingdom. Only for people who repented their sins.
• E.) This event matters because Jesus’ ministry made a huge impact, it still studied till this day by Christians.
• F.)This event made a huge impact because after Jesus’ death, Christianity was spread throughout Europe. This religion is still practiced till this day and it still will be in the future.

jesus is executed

29 a.d

a. Event title- Jesus is executed

b. event date- around a.d 29

c. who was involved (could be specific people, groups of people, or countries)

a. Jesus 12 disciples
b. Pontius Pilate
c. Romans
d. Jews
e. Mary Magdalene

d. what happened/definition

a. People believed Jesus was the messiah or king. The roman governor Pontius Pilate accuses Jesus of defying the authority of Rome. Pilate had Jesus arrested and sentenced him to be crucified, or nailed to a large wooden cross. After his death, the gospels say his body rose from the dead.

e. why this event matters

a. Christians believe that this event signified that he died for their sins.

f. how this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events

a. This event started a whole new religion, Christianity!

paul spreads jesus' word

30 a.d

a. Event title- Paul spreads Jesus’ word

b. event date- around 29 a.d ( around the time Jesus died)

c. who was involved (could be specific people, groups of people, or countries)

a. Paul
b. Christians
c. Damascus
d. what happened/definition

a. The apostle Paul had a great influence on Christian development. Paul was originally an enemy of Christianity. While on his way to Damascus, Syria, he had a vision of Jesus. He spent the rest of his life spreading his word. This was during the” pax romana” period which made travel fairly safe. Latin and Greek made the message easy to understand. He taught that Jesus was the son of god who died for all of our sins.
e. why this event matters

a. Without this event Christianity would have died off quick. People were too scared to spread the word of a man who was crucified for what he was teaching

f. how this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events

a. This event spreaded Christianity throughout the world. Christianity is a common religion now.

Persecution of christians

180 A.D. - 200 A.D.


b. Event Date: A.D. 180 AND 200 A.D.

c. Who was involved:

d. What happened: they refused to worship Roman gods. This refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule.

e. Why this event matters: Romans exiled, imprisoned, or executed Christians for refusing worship Roman deities.

f. How this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events:
Martyrs were willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a belief or a cause.

Edict of Milan

312 A.D. - 313 A.D

Event title: Edict of Milan

a) Event date

a. A.D. 313

b) Who was involved

a. Constantine the emperor of Rome

c) What happened?

a. Constantine accepts Christianity and he declared Christianity to be one of the religious approved by the emperor.

d) Why this event matters:

a. Christianity continued to gain strength and Christians had given their religious a structure, much as the Roman Empire had a hierarchy.

e) How this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events:

a. This even impacted the future and the past events because today is one of 2 most important religions in the world as well as it was in the past.

Roman Emperors

Rome takes over Judea

63 B.C.

Rome Takes over Judea
• Event title:
Rome Takes over Judea

• Event date:
Roman power spread to Judea, the home of the Jews, around 63 B.C.

• Who was involved? :
The Romans, the Jewish Kingdom, Jesus of Nazareth
• What happened/Definition? :
According to biblical tradition god promised that a savior known as the Messiah, would come and restore the kingdom of the Jews. Roughly two decades after roman rule many believed this savior had arrived. Sometime around 6 to 4 B.C. A Jew named Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea. At the age of 30 Jesus began his public ministry for the next three years He preached taught and performed miracles.

• Why does this event matter? :
This event matters because it was the start of the Christian Religion and the savior of man.
• This event made a huge impact because Christianity is one of the major religions of the world today and the start of the first catholic church and eastern orthodox church


98 A.D - 117 A.D

98-117 A.D
The Roman Empire
A good emperor who undertook a vast building program
Trajan helped enlarged social welfare
Empire reached its greatest extent

Marcus Aurelius

161 A.D - 180 A.D

161-180 A.D
The Roman Empire (Italy, Rome)
A good emperor who brought the empire to height of economic prosperity
War and disease threatened Rome on all sides, but Marcus held his ground as a Roman emperor.
He defeated invaders from hurting the Roman Empire. He also wrote philosophy that emphasized fate, reason, and self-restraint

Fall of Roman Empire

300 - 500

A century of Crisis
A.D. 161-180
Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Roman Soilders, Rome
Roman Soilders had become less disciplined and loyal.
The military started to crumble and basically shut down.
Rome had no loyalty from their soilders or citizens.

Gladiator Games
A.D. 250
Romans, Roman Empire
They were meant to distract and control the masses of Romans, the government provided free games, races, mock battles, and gladiator contests.
This event kept people from knowing the truth about Rome's downfall.

Diocletian becomes emperor
A.D. 284
Roman Army, Diocletian, Greece, Syria, Anatolia, Egypt, Italy, Gaul, Britan, and Spain.
Diocletian ruled with an iron fist and severly limited personal freedoms.

Huns move into Germany
The Huns moved into the region and begin destroying the Mongol's path. In and effort to flee from the Huns, the various Germanic people into Roman lands.
Huns move into Germany.
A.D. 350-500


312 A.D - 330 A.D

312 A.D
Constantine, Roman Empire
Found new capital for empire; Emperor of the western part of the Roman empire who continued many of the social and economic policies
The city of Rome becomes official center of church
Civil war broke out after the death of Diocletian. By 311, four rivals were competing for power of the Roman Empire. Constantine would later end the persecution of Christians.
He moved to the capital of Rome, to the Greek city of Byzantium. The new capital was now located for trade and defense purposes such as Bosporus straight. The new Capital was also protected by massive walls and renamed Constantinople.


02/01/2013 - 03/29/2013

The people who were involved was Caesar and Octavian
Augustus was the most powerful ruler of the mighest emperor of the ancient world
Augustus created solid polices that lasted centuries, he created highways, aqueducts structures to carry water through the cites
He gave the roman peace and prosperity
Augustus died in 14AD at 76 and the pax romana continued until 180 AD

Fall of Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire

Church splits into two halves

398 AD - 404 AD

Event: Church splits into two halves
Event Date: 398-404 A.D.
Who was involved: Bishop of Constantinople, Emperor Leo III, Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman Catholic) churches, Byzantine Emperor, Empress Theodora
What happened: Emperor Leo band the use of icons and people responded to this by revolting through riots and the clergy rebelled.
Why is matters: The Emperor’s authority was tested when this controversy occurred
How it impacted the future: It impacted some views on religion, but there are still some religions that have icons they pray to.

Justinian takes the throne


: Justinian takes control of the empire in 527 and was determined to regain the western half of the Roman Empire. In an effort Justinian sent his best general, Belisarius to recover North Africa from the invading Germanic tribes. Belisarius and his forces quickly succeeded. Two years later Belisarius attacked Rome and took control from a group called the Ostrogoths. This matters because Justinian tried to take back the other half of the Roman Empire and eventually failed. This event impacted the future by not allowing the Roman Empire to expand and takeover more territory.

Hagia Sophia is built


: Means “Holy Wisdom” was a church that was destroyed in many riots that swept through Constantinople in 532. Justinian rebuilt Hagia Sophia and it received many visitors and became the most splendid church in the Christian world. This is one of the big rise ups of the Christian faith and how it came to be today.

Kiev Becomes Orthodox


Event title: Kiev becomes Orthodox
Event date: 880
Who was involved? The Russians and Byzantines
What happened: he became orthodox and started the Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Why dies this matter
What was the impact?