The Great War

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The Assassination

June 28, 1914

Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand Society, kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo.

The Ultimatum

July 23, 1914

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Austria-Hungary sent an Ultimatum to the Serbian government which they deny.

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

July 28, 1914

Germany declares war with Russia

August 1, 1914

Germany declares war on France

August 3, 1914

Great Britain declares war on Germany

August 4, 1914

Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

August 6, 1914

2nd Battle of Ypres

April 22, 1915 - May 25,1915

This battle was between the Germans and France. This was the first time poison gas was used, by Germany, and France was horrified and angry.

Gallipoli

April 25, 1915 - January 9, 1916

This battle was between Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire. This campaign was designed to take the Ottoman capital and secure a route to Russia. There was many casualties on both sides. It is known as one of the greatest victories in Turkish history.

Lusitania

May 1, 1915

The Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U-boat five miles off the coast of Ireland, and sank in 18 minutes. 1198 lives were claimed.

Battles of Isonzo

June 23, 1915 - November 7, 1917

These battles were between Italy and Austria. There were 12 battles. There was a total 1.2 million casualties in these battles.

Battle of Verdun

February 21, 1916 - December 18,1916

This battle was between the French and the Germans. This was an attack by the Germans, designed to "bleed the French dry." The German casualties of this battle are 430,000 and the French are 540,000.

Sussex Pledge

May 4, 1916

After sinking a passenger ferry, the Sussex, President Woodrow Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations with Germany if they kept their current submarine warfare policies. Germany, afraid that the US will join the war, promised to stop.

Battle of Jutland

May 31, 1916 - June 1,1916

This battle was between Great Britain and Germany. It was the only major naval battle of the war. The battle plan was leaked by the Germans so Great Britain had the advantage because they knew what was coming. Although Germany was at a disadvantage, they were able to deal a significant amount of damage to the British fleet.

Brusilov Offensive

June 4, 1916 - September 20, 1916

This was a Russian attack against Austria. This was also designed to relieve pressure from Verdun. This was a highly successful attack, and is known as Russia's greatest victory of the Great War.

Battle of the Somme

July 1, 1916 - November 18, 1916

This battle was fought between the British and the Germans. This was an allied attack designed to relieve pressure off of Verdun. The battle began after a week long bombardment of the German line, which was supposed to destroy the barbed wire but failed. This battle resulted in 420,000 British soldiers, 200,000 French soldiers, and 500,000 German soldiers to die. The allies ultimately gain 25 miles from this battle.

German U-boat Campaign

1917

Germany begins unrestricted submarine warfare again.

Battle of Gaza

March 26, 1917 - November 7, 1917

This battle of Great Britain against the Ottoman Empire. The British were defeated in the first two battles but succeeded in the third.

USA declares war on Germany

April 6, 1917

The USA declares war in a response to the Germans sinking US ships.

The Second Battle of the Aisne

April 16, 1917 - May 9, 1917

This was a massive French attack on Germany. There was 118,000 French casualties, and 40,000 German casualties. Although it is known as a French failure, it had a net gain of seven kilometers.

Russia leaves the war

March 3, 1918

Russia must leave the war because of a revolution back in its own country.

German Spring Offensive

March 21, 1918 - April 1918

This battle was Germany against the Allied Powers on the western front. Germany saw this as a last chance to wipe out France from the war before the overwhelming number and materials of the US come into the war. Also, Germany had a quantity advantage because the Russians just released German prisoners. The Germans had early success but supplies could not keep up with the speed of the troops moving forward. Inevitably, the Germans could not defend the newly captured land and was driven back.

Second Battle of the Marne

July 15, 1918 - August 5, 1918

This was a Germany's last offensive against the allies on the western front. The attacked failed when the allies launched a counterattack. This battle could be considered the beginning of the end of the war.

Armistice

November 11, 1918

Germany signs an armistice which is a cease fire. It was scheduled to start at 11 a.m. in the morning, but many Allied commanders ordered their men to fight to the last minute and sent attacks.

Paris Peace Conference

January 18, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference was meeting of the Allied victors. It had the "Big four," which are Great Britain, Italy, France, and the United States, and 27 other counties. The Central powers and Russia were not invited. It took six months to reach a treaty agreement on Germany.

The Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Germany felt that they could not be able to deal with all the demands of the treaty. Germany had to give France Alsace-Lorraine, demilitarize Rhineland, Germany limited to only 100,000 troops and no offensive weapons, reparations: $24 billion, coal, material, steel, shipping.